Hawaii-Pacific Weed Risk Assessment [HP-WRA] is a research project by Curt Daehler (University of Hawaii) and Julie Denslow (USDA Forest Service) that has been supported by funding from the USDA Forest Service and from the Hawaii Division of Forestry and Wildlife Urban and Community Forestry program.  The WRA scoring system was originally developed in Australia and New Zealand for the evaluation of plants being imported. The intent of the HP-WRA research project is to identify plants that pose a high weed risk in Hawaii and other Pacific Islands.

The HP-WRA score does not measure actual invasiveness or economic or ecological harm in the field. Rather, a designation of H(HPWRA) is a prediction that a species will become invasive . The HP-WRA does not measure species benefits in terms of economic, ecological, public health, medicinal, historic, community, cultural, tourism, and esthetic value; nor does it determine if a suitable alternative species exists. 

The HP-WRA only considers published information on invasiveness in Hawaii or elsewhere and it does not include an actual "in-the field" evaluation of current impacts in Hawaii. Another evaluation protocol called the Hawaii Exotic Plant Evaluation Protocol (HEPEP) is being developed to provide a current field evaluation of species that have been designated H(HPWRA).

The HP-WRA ratings have no regulatory authority and the HP-WRA "list" is not an official State list of invasive plants. By statute, the Hawaii Department of Agriculture is solely responsible for determining which plant and animal species are prohibited or permitted into the State (Hawaii Administrative Rules 4:68:1 - 'Noxious Weed Rules'). To determine which species are prohibited in Hawaii, please consult the official State of Hawaii List of Plant Species Designated as Noxious Weeds.

WRA designation   Meaning
L   Not currently recognized as invasive in Hawaii, and not likely to have major ecological or economic impacts on other Pacific Islands based on the HP-WRA screening process
L(Hawai'i) Not currently recognized as invasive in Hawaii based on a track record of not becoming naturalized despite being widely planted in Hawaii for at least 40 years. 
H(HPWRA) Likely to be invasive in Hawaii and on other Pacific Islands as determined by the HP- WRA screening process., which is based on published sources describing species biology and behavior in Hawaii and/or other parts of the world.
H(Hawai'i) Documented to cause significant ecological or economic harm in Hawaii, as determined from published information on the species' current impacts in Hawaii. [more details]
EVALUATE The species has been assessed using the HP- WRA system; however, no assessment of risk can be provided at this time because 1)important information is missing from the assessment or 2)the species possesses a combination of traits and characteristics that make its likely behavior difficult to assess using the WRA system. 




To download the full assessment for any species, please use our search interface.

Completed assessments sorted by Genus

Family Preferred_species_name Common name WRA score WRA designation
Arecaceae Pritchardia thurstonii Thurstons Fan Palm -4 L
Rosaceae Prunus grisea amongyang 2 EVALUATE
Acanthaceae Aphelandra aurantiaca fiery spike -2 L
Acanthaceae Asystasia gangetica Chinese violet 12 H (HPWRA)
Acanthaceae Eranthemum pulchellum blue sage 0 L
Acanthaceae Graptophyllum pictum caricature-plant -5 L
Acanthaceae Hemigraphis alternata metallic plant 1 L
Acanthaceae Hygrophila polysperma East Indian swampweed 20 H (HPWRA)
Acanthaceae Justicia brandegeeana shrimp plant -1 L
Acanthaceae Megaskepasma erythrochlamys red cloak -2 L
Acanthaceae Odontonema cuspidatum firespike 7 H (HPWRA)[revised]
Acanthaceae Pachystachys lutea yellow shrimp plant -4 L
Acanthaceae Pseuderanthemum graciliflorum blue crossandra 1 L
Acanthaceae Ruellia caroliniensis Carolina wild petunia 1 L
Acanthaceae Ruttya fruticosa rabbit ears 1 EVALUATE
Acanthaceae Sanchezia speciosa Sanchezia 3 L
Acanthaceae Thunbergia grandiflora blue trumpet vine 11 H (HPWRA)
Acanthaceae Thunbergia laurifolia blue trumpet vine 11 H (HPWRA)
Acanthaceae Thunbergia mysorensis mysore clock vine -6 L
Aceraceae Acer rubrum red maple 8 H (HPWRA)
Agavaceae Dasylirion acrotrichum green desert spoon 0 L
Agavaceae Dasylirion quadrangulatum Mexican grass tree -4 L
Agavaceae Dracaena draco dragon tree -5 L
Agavaceae Dracaena fragrans corn plant 0 L
Agavaceae Dracaena marginata money tree -1 L
Agavaceae Nolina recurvata ponytail palm -4 L
Agavaceae Phormium tenax New Zealand flax 8 H (Hawai‘i)
Agavaceae Sansevieria trifasciata mother-in-law's tongue 9 H (HPWRA)
Agavaceae Yucca guatemalensis bluestem yucca 6 L
Aizoaceae Aptenia cordifolia hearts and flowers 5 L
Aizoaceae Carpobrotus edulis ice plant 9.5 H (HPWRA)
Amaranthaceae Iresine herbstii blood leaf 0 L
Anacardiaceae Anacardium occidentale cashew tree 0 L
Anacardiaceae Schinus molle Peruvian pepper tree 10 H (HPWRA)
Anacardiaceae Schinus terebinthifolius Christmas berry 19 H (Hawai‘i)
Anacardiaceae Spondias dulcis wi apple -5 L
Anacardiaceae. Mangifera indica mango 1 L
Annonaceae Annona cherimola cherimoya -4 L
Annonaceae Annona muricata soursop -3 L
Annonaceae Annona squamosa sugar apple -2 L
Annonaceae Artabotrys hexapetalus climbing ylang-ylang -1 L
Annonaceae Cananga odorata perfume tree 3 L
Annonaceae Polyalthia longifolia var pendula mast tree -4 L
Apiaceae Foeniculum vulgare fennel 19 H (HPWRA)
Apiaceae Petroselinum crispum parsley -1 L
Apocynaceae Adenium obesum desert rose -8 L
Apocynaceae Allamanda blanchetii purple allamanda 6 Evaluate
Apocynaceae Allamanda cathartica golden trumpet Allamanda 8 H (HPWRA)
Apocynaceae Alstonia macrophylla deviltree 9 H (HPWRA)
Apocynaceae Beaumontia grandiflora Easter-lily-vine -6 L
Apocynaceae Beaumontia multiflora herald's trumpet -4 L
Apocynaceae Carissa grandiflora Natal plum -1 L
Apocynaceae Catharanthus roseus Madagascar periwinkle 2 L
Apocynaceae Cerbera manghas pink-eyed Cerbera 1 L
Apocynaceae Kopsia fruticosa shrub Vinca -6 L
Apocynaceae Kopsia singapurensis Singapore Kopsia -4 L
Apocynaceae Mandevilla × amabilis pink allamanda hybrid -11 L
Apocynaceae Nerium oleander oleander 6 L (Hawai‘i)
Apocynaceae Pentalinon luteum wild allamanda 9 H (HPWRA)
Apocynaceae Plumeria obtusa evergreen frangipani -6 L
Apocynaceae Plumeria rubra frangipani -5 L
Apocynaceae Rauvolfia vomitoria poison devil's pepper 11 H (HPWRA)
Apocynaceae Stemmadenia litoralis lecheso -5 L
Apocynaceae Strophanthus amboensis elephant vine 2 EVALUATE
Apocynaceae Strophanthus preussii climbing oleander 0 L
Apocynaceae Tabernaemontana elegans warty toad tree -1 L
Apocynaceae Thevetia peruviana be-still tree 9 H (HPWRA)
Apocynaceae Thevetia thevetioides giant Thevetia 1 L
Apocynaceae Trachelospermum jasminoides confederate jasmine -3 L
Aquifoliaceae Ilex cassine Dahoon holly 3 EVALUATE
Aquifoliaceae Ilex dimorphophylla Okinawan holly 2 L
Aquifoliaceae Ilex paraguariensis yerba mate 8 H (HPWRA)
Araceae Aglaonema commutatum Aglaonema 1 L
Araceae Aglaonema nitidum Aglaonema 0 L
Araceae Alocasia cucullata dwarf elephant ear 9 H (HPWRA)
Araceae Alocasia sanderiana Kris plant -2 L
Araceae Anthurium hoLeri birds nest Anthurium -6 L
Araceae Dieffenbachia seguine (outdoors) dumbcane 7 H (HPWRA)
Araceae Epipremnum pinnatum pothos 9 H (HPWRA)
Araceae Monstera deliciosa swiss-cheese plant 1 L
Araceae Philodendron scandens heart-leaf philodendron -3 L
Araceae Spathiphyllum cannifolium spathe flower -4 L
Araceae Spathiphyllum wallisii peace lily -4 L
Araceae Syngonium auritum five-fingers 1 L
Araceae Syngonium podophyllum arrowhead plant 15 H (HPWRA)
Araceae Xanthosoma robustum elephant ear 3 EVALUATE
Araceae Zantedeschia aethiopica Calla lily 15 H (HPWRA)
Araliaceae Cussonia paniculata Mountain cabbage tree -7 L
Araliaceae Cussonia spicata cabbage tree -5 L
Araliaceae Hedera algeriensis Algerian ivy 4 H (HPWRA)
Araliaceae Hedera helix English ivy 10 H (HPWRA)
Araliaceae Polyscias filicifolia geranium aralia 0 L
Araliaceae Polyscias fruticosa Ming Aralia -1 L
Araliaceae Polyscias guilfoylei panax 0 L
Araliaceae Schefflera actinophylla octopus tree 13 H (Hawai‘i)
Araliaceae Schefflera arboricola dwarf umbrella-tree 3 EVALUATE
Araliaceae Schefflera elegantissima false aralia 0 L
Araliaceae Schefflera taiwaniana umbrella plant 1 EVALUATE
Araucariaceae Agathis robusta Queensland kauri -5 L
Araucariaceae Araucaria columnaris CoLs pine -5 L
Araucariaceae Araucaria heterophylla Norfolk Island pine -5 L
Arecaceae Acoelorraphe wrightii everglades palm 2 EVALUATE
Arecaceae Archontophoenix alexandrae Alexandra palm 8 H (HPWRA) [revised 1/22/08]
Arecaceae Archontophoenix cunninghamiana king palm 6 EVALUATE [revised 1/22/08]
Arecaceae Archontophoenix tuckeri peach creek palm 4 EVALUATE
Arecaceae Balaka longirostris Mbalaka 0 L
Arecaceae Beccariophoenix madagascariensis window palm -7 L
Arecaceae Bismarckia nobilis Bismarck palm -7 L
Arecaceae Brahea armata blue hesper palm 3 L
Arecaceae Carpentaria acuminata Carpentaria palm -5 L
Arecaceae Caryota mitis fishtail palm 1 EVALUATE
Arecaceae Coccothrinax barbadensis Puerto Rico silver palm 2 Evaluate
Arecaceae Cocos nucifera coconut palm -4 L
Arecaceae Colpothrinax wrightii barrel palm -2 L
Arecaceae Copernicia prunifera carnauba wax palm 0 L
Arecaceae Cyrtostachys renda sealing wax palm 1 EVALUATE
Arecaceae Dictyosperma album hurricane palm -3 L
Arecaceae Dypsis decaryi triangle palm -7 L
Arecaceae Dypsis lutescens areca palm 2 L (Hawai‘i)
Arecaceae Elaeis guineensis African oil palm 10 H (HPWRA)
Arecaceae Euterpe oleracea assai 5 EVALUATE
Arecaceae Hyophorbe lagenicaulis bottle palm -3 L
Arecaceae Laccospadix australasica Atherton palm 1 EVALUATE
Arecaceae Latania loddigesii blue Latan palm -8 L
Arecaceae Livistona chinensis Chinese fan palm 5 EVALUATE
Arecaceae Livistona rotundifolia footstool palm -1 L
Arecaceae Metroxylon amicarum Caroline ivory nut palm 0 L
Arecaceae Phoenix dactylifera date palm 10 H (HPWRA)
Arecaceae Phoenix roebelenii pygmy date palm -5 L
Arecaceae Ptychosperma elegans Alexander palm 2 EVALUATE
Arecaceae Ptychosperma macarthurii Macarthur palm 1 H (HPWRA)
Arecaceae Roystonea oleracea cabbage palm -3 L
Arecaceae Roystonea regia Florida royal palm 0 L
Arecaceae Sabal mauritiiformis savannah palm -2 L
Arecaceae Syagrus romanzoffiana queen palm -2 L
Arecaceae Thrinax parviflora thatch palm -6 L
Arecaceae Veitchia joannis Joannis palm -1 L
Arecaceae Veitchia merrillii Manila palm -2 L
Arecaceae Veitchia montgomeryana Montgomery palm -1 L
Arecaceae Veitchia winin Winin palm -4 L
Arecaceae Washingtonia filifera California fan palm 11.5 H (HPWRA)
Arecaceae Washingtonia robusta Mexican fan palm 15 H (HPWRA)
Arecaceae Wodyetia bifurcata foxtail palm 0 L
Aristolochiaceae Aristolochia ringens gaping dutchman's pipe 4 EVALUATE
Asclepiadaceae Asclepias physocarpa milkweed 8 H (HPWRA)
Asclepiadaceae Calotropis gigantea crownplant 15 H (HPWRA)
Asclepiadaceae Calotropis procera small crownflower 15 H (HPWRA)
Asclepiadaceae Cryptostegia madagascariensis Madagascar rubber vine 13 H (HPWRA)
Asteraceae Achillea millefolium common yarrow 19 H (HPWRA)
Asteraceae Acmella grandiflora Acmella 0 L
Asteraceae Ambrosia psilostachya western ragweed 15 H (HPWRA)
Asteraceae Bidens alba beggar's-tick 12 H (HPWRA)
Asteraceae Bidens pilosa Spanish needle 23 H (HPWRA)
Asteraceae Centaurea melitensis yellow star thistle 18 H (HPWRA)
Asteraceae Chamelaucium uncinatum Geraldton wax -2.5 L
Asteraceae Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium pyrethrum 3 Evaluate
Asteraceae Cirsium vulgare bull thistle 18.5 H (HPWRA)
Asteraceae Delairea odorata German ivy 14 H (Hawai‘i)
Asteraceae Erigeron karvinskianus Mexican daisy 11 H (Hawai‘i)
Asteraceae Gazania rigens var. leucolaena trailing gazania 9 H (HPWRA)
Asteraceae Helianthus annuus sunflower 10.5 H (HPWRA)
Asteraceae Montanoa hibiscifolia treedaisy 13 H (HPWRA)
Asteraceae Osteospermum fruticosum trailing African daisy 3 L
Asteraceae Pseudogynoxys chenopodioides Mexican flame vine 7 H (HPWRA)
Asteraceae Senecio cineraria dusty miller 2 L
Asteraceae Senecio madagascariensis fireweed 23 H (Hawai‘i)
Asteraceae Senecio mandraliscae blue finger -3 L
Asteraceae Silybum marianum milk thistle 17.5 H (HPWRA)
Asteraceae Sphagneticola trilobata wedelia 13 H (HPWRA)
Asteraceae Tagetes minuta Aztec marigold 20 H (HPWRA)
Asteraceae Verbesina encelioides golden crown-beard 19 H (HPWRA)
Asteraceae Wollastonia biflora Wedelia 0 L
Balsaminaceae Impatiens balsamina balsam impatens 5 EVALUATE
Balsaminaceae Impatiens wallerana busy Lizzy 6 L
Basellaceae Basella alba Malabar spinach 8 H (HPWRA)
Betulaceae Alnus nepalensis Nepalese alder -2 L
Bignoniaceae Catalpa longissima Jamaica oak 2 L
Bignoniaceae Crescentia cujete calabash tree -8 L
Bignoniaceae Dolichandrone spathacea mangrove trumpet-tree -5 L
Bignoniaceae Godmania aesculifolia cachillo -3 L
Bignoniaceae Haplophragma adenophyllum karenwood 0 L (HPWRA)
Bignoniaceae Jacaranda mimosifolia Jacaranda 1 L
Bignoniaceae Kigelia africana sausage tree 0 L
Bignoniaceae Macfadyena unguis-cati cat's claw vine 17 H (HPWRA)
Bignoniaceae Mansoa alliaceum garlic vine 0 L
Bignoniaceae Mansoa hymenaea membranous garlic vine 0 L
Bignoniaceae Podranea ricasoliana pink trumpet vine 3 EVALUATE
Bignoniaceae Pyrostegia venusta flame vine 7 H (HPWRA)
Bignoniaceae Saritaea magnifica glowvine 1 Evaluate
Bignoniaceae Spathodea campanulata African tulip tree 14 H (HPWRA)
Bignoniaceae Tabebuia aurea silver trumpet tree 3 L
Bignoniaceae Tabebuia berteroi Hispaniolan rosy trumpet tree -4 L
Bignoniaceae Tabebuia donnell-smithii gold tree -4 L
Bignoniaceae Tabebuia heterophylla pink trumpet-tree 1 L
Bignoniaceae Tabebuia impetiginosa mauve tabebuia -2 L
Bignoniaceae Tabebuia ochracea golden trumpet tree -3 L
Bignoniaceae Tabebuia rosea rosie trumpet tree 3 EVALUATE
Bignoniaceae Tecoma alata cahuato -3 L
Bignoniaceae Tecoma capensis Cape honeysuckle 6 L (Hawai‘i)
Bignoniaceae Tecoma stans yellow bells 8 H (HPWRA)
Bignoniaceae Thunbergia erecta bush thunbergia -2 L
Bishofiaceae Bischofia javanica bishopwood 7 H (HPWRA)
Bixaceae Bixa orellana lipsticktree 1 L
Bixaceae Cochlospermum vitifolium buttercup tree -4 L
Bombacaceae Adansonia digitata baobab tree -6 L
Bombacaceae Ceiba pentandra kapok tree 2 L
Bombacaceae Chorisia speciosa floss-silk tree -7 L
Bombacaceae Pachira aquatica Malabar chestnut -6 L
Bombacaceae Pseudobombax ellipticum shavingbrush tree -2 L
Boraginaceae Carmona retusa Fukien tea 4 EVALUATE
Boraginaceae Cordia lutea yellow geiger -6 L
Boraginaceae Cordia sebestena geiger tree -1 L
Boraginaceae Cordia subcordata kou -3 L
Boraginaceae Tournefortia argentea tree heliotrope -1 L
Brassicaceae Brassica napus turnip 16 H (HPWRA)
Brassicaceae Lepidium africanum African pepperwort 10 H (HPWRA)
Brassicaceae Lepidium virginicum Virginia pepperweed 17 H (HPWRA)
Bromeliaceae Aechmea blanchetiana orange blanchetiana 0 L
Bromeliaceae Aechmea fasciata urn plant 2 L
Bromeliaceae Guzmania lindenii Guzmania 7 H (HPWRA)
Bromeliaceae Tillandsia cyanea pink quill -5 L
Bromeliaceae Tillandsia usneoides Spanish moss 9 H (HPWRA)
Buddlejaceae Buddleja asiatica Asian butterfly bush 9 H (HPWRA)
Buddlejaceae Buddleja davidii orange eye butterflybush 13 H (HPWRA)
Buddlejaceae Buddleja madagascariensis smokebush 7 H (Hawai‘i)
Cactaceae Cleistocactus baumannii firecracker cactus -4 L
Cactaceae Pereskia aculeata Barbados gooseberry 13 H (HPWRA)
Cactaceae Pereskia grandifolia rose cactus 0 L
Cactaceae Pereskia lychnidiflora arbol del matrimonio -1 L
Cannabaceae Cannabis sativa marijuana 8.5 H (HPWRA)
Cannaceae Canna indica African arrowroot 17 H (HPWRA)
Capparaceae Crateva religiosa spider tree 0 L
Caprifoliaceae Abelia x grandiflora glossy Abelia -13 L
Caprifoliaceae Lonicera japonica Japanese honeysuckle 12 H (HPWRA)
Caprifoliaceae Lonicera xheckrottii goldflame honeysuckle -5 L
Caprifoliaceae Sambucus mexicana Mexican elderberry 9 H (HPWRA)
Caricaceae Carica papaya papaya 2 L
Casuarinaceae Allocasuarina verticillata drooping she oak -5 L
Casuarinaceae Casuarina cunninghamiana cunninghamia beefwood 12 H (HPWRA)
Casuarinaceae Casuarina equisetifolia iron wood 21 H (HPWRA) [revised 07/03/08]
Casuarinaceae Casuarina glauca gray sheoak 20 H (HPWRA)
Casuarinaceae Gymnostoma papuanum Gymnostoma 0 L
Cecropiaceae Cecropia obtusifolia trumpet-tree 10 H (HPWRA)
Cecropiaceae Cecropia peltata trumpet tree 9 H (HPWRA)
Celastraceae Elaeodendron orientale false olive -1 L
Chenopodiaceae Chenopodium carinatum Tasmanian goosefoot 9 H (HPWRA)
Chenopodiaceae Salicornia virginica Virginia pickleweed 4 L
Chenopodiaceae Salsola kali Tumbleweed 18.5 H (HPWRA)
Clusiaceae Calophyllum inophyllum kamani 6 EVALUATE
Clusiaceae Clusia rosea autograph tree 5 EVALUATE
Clusiaceae Hypericum canariense Canary Island St. Johnswort 9 H (HPWRA)
Clusiaceae Hypericum perforatum common St. Johnswort 12 H (HPWRA)
Combretaceae Bucida buceras black olive -3 L
Combretaceae Bucida molinetii spiny black olive -3 L
Combretaceae Conocarpus erectus button mangrove 4 L
Combretaceae Terminalia catappa tropical almond 4 L
Combretaceae Terminalia myriocarpa East Indian almond -2 L
Commelinaceae Dichorisandra thyrsiflora blue ginger 1 L
Commelinaceae Tradescantia spathacea boat-lily 11 H (HPWRA)
Convolvulaceae Argyreia nervosa Hawaiian baby woodrose 1 L
Convolvulaceae Evolvulus glomeratus blue daze 0 L
Convolvulaceae Ipomoea horsfalliae Kuhio vine 1 L
Convolvulaceae Ipomoea quamoclit Cypress vine 14 H (HPWRA)
Convolvulaceae Merremia tuberosa wood rose 12 H (HPWRA)
Convolvulaceae Poranopsis paniculata bridal bouquet -5 L
Costaceae Costus dubius costus 8 H (HPWRA)
Costaceae Costus woodsonii Indian-head ginger 11 H (HPWRA)
Crassulaceae Bryophyllum tubiflorum chandelier plant 9 H (HPWRA)
Crassulaceae Crassula ovata jade plant -4 L
Crassulaceae Kalanchoe beharensis velvet leaf 4 EVALUATE
Crassulaceae Kalanchoe tomentosa panda plant 4 L
Cucurbitaceae Coccinia grandis ivy gourd 21 H (Hawai‘i)
Cucurbitaceae Lagenaria siceraria bottle gourd 0 L
Cupressaceae Cupressus lusitanica Mexican cypress 6 L
Cupressaceae Juniperus chinensis Chinese juniper -3 L
Cupressaceae Platycladus orientalis oriental arborvitae -6 L
Cupressaceae Sequoia sempervirens California redwood -4 L
Cyatheaceae Cyathea cooperi Australian tree fern 8 H (Hawai‘i)
Cycadaceae Cycas revoluta king sago -2 L
Cyperaceae Carex muskingumensis Muskingum sedge 8 H (HPWRA)
Cyperaceae Cyperus involucratus umbrella sedge 17 H (HPWRA)
Dasypogonaceae Lomandra longifolia 'tanika' fine leaf lomandra 1 L
Davalliaceae Davallia fejeensis lacy hare’s-foot fern 6 L
Didiereaceae Alluaudia procera Madagascar ocotillo -7 L
Dilleniaceae Dillenia suffruticosa shrubby dillenia 3 EVALUATE
Elaeocarpaceae Elaeocarpus angustifolius blue marble tree 4 EVALUATE
Elaeocarpaceae Elaeocarpus hainanensis Hainan elaeocarpus 1 Evaluate
Eleagnaceae Elaeagnus umbellata autumn olive 13 H (HPWRA)
Ericaceae Erica lusitanica Spanish heath 20.5 H (HPWRA)
Ericaceae Rhododendron indicum evergreen azalea 4 L (Hawai‘i)
Euphorbiaceae Acalypha godseffiana Acalypha -7 L
Euphorbiaceae Acalypha hispida chenille plant 2 L
Euphorbiaceae Acalypha wilkesiana beefsteak plant -2 L
Euphorbiaceae Aleurites moluccana kukui 12 H (HPWRA)
Euphorbiaceae Breynia disticha snow bush -5 L
Euphorbiaceae Chamaesyce albomarginata rattle snake weed 3 L
Euphorbiaceae Codiaeum variegatum croton -4 L
Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia amygdaloides variety ‘Efanthia’ wood spurge 12 H (HPWRA)
Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia cotinifolia red spurge -2 L
Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia cyathophora fire-on-the-mountain 7 H (HPWRA)
Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia lathyris petroleum plant 9 H (HPWRA)
Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia leucocephala pascuita -2 L
Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia milii crown of thorns 1 L
Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia pulcherrima poinsettia -7 L
Euphorbiaceae Excoecaria indica mock willow 1 EVALUATE
Euphorbiaceae Jatropha curcas physicnut 17 H (HPWRA)
Euphorbiaceae Jatropha gossypiifolia belly-ache bush 18 H (HPWRA)
Euphorbiaceae Jatropha integerrima peregrina 0 L
Euphorbiaceae Jatropha podagrica gout stalk 2 L
Euphorbiaceae Macaranga mappa bingabing 11 H (Hawai'i)
Euphorbiaceae Manihot esculenta cassava 3 L
Euphorbiaceae Phyllanthus acidus gooseberry-tree 4 L
Euphorbiaceae Ricinus communis castorbean 21 H (HPWRA)
Euphorbiaceae Triadica sebifera Chinese Tallow 14 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Acacia auriculiformis Darwin Black Wattle 13 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Acacia confusa Formosan koa 10 H (Hawai‘i)
Fabaceae Acacia crassicarpa northern wattle 7 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Acacia farnesiana sweet acacia 14 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Acacia holosericea candelabra wattle 4 EVALUATE
Fabaceae Acacia longifolia Sidney goldern wattle 10 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Acacia mangium mangium 8 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Acacia mearnsii Australian acacia 15 H (Hawai‘i)
Fabaceae Acacia melanoxylon Australian blackwood 12 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Acacia nilotica gum arabic tree 14 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Acacia parramattensis Parrmatta green wattle 9 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Acacia stenophylla shoestring acacia 2 L
Fabaceae Adenanthera pavonina peacock tree 7 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Aeschynomene americana American joint vetch 12 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Albizia chinensis Chinese albizia 8 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Albizia guachapele chime tree -4 L
Fabaceae Albizia lebbeck woman's-tongue tree 7 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Andira inermis cabbage tree -3 L
Fabaceae Arachis glabrata perennial peanut -1 L
Fabaceae Arachis pintoi perenial peanut -1 L
Fabaceae Bauhinia binata unknown -1 L
Fabaceae Bauhinia hookeri white Bauhinia -4 L
Fabaceae Bauhinia monandra pink orchid tree 7 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Bauhinia purpurea purple bauhinia 7 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Bauhinia tomentosa yellow tree bauhinia -1 L
Fabaceae Bauhinia variegata mountain ebony 9 L (Hawai‘i)
Fabaceae Bauhinia x blakeana Hong Kong orchid tree -7 L
Fabaceae Bolusanthus speciosus wisteria tree -6 L
Fabaceae Caesalpinia bonduc nickerbean 12 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Caesalpinia decapetala cat's claw 20 H (Hawai‘i)
Fabaceae Caesalpinia ferrea Brazilian ironwood -3 L
Fabaceae Caesalpinia major yellow nicker 10 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Caesalpinia pulcherrima dwarf poinciana 5 L
Fabaceae Cajanus cajan pigeon pea 0 L
Fabaceae Calliandra calothyrsus calliandra 1 L
Fabaceae Calliandra haematocephala red powderpuff 2 L
Fabaceae Calliandra surinamensis pink powderpuff -4 L
Fabaceae Calopogonium mucunoides calapo 6 L
Fabaceae Cassia bakeriana pink shower tree -2 L
Fabaceae Cassia fistula golden shower tree 3 L
Fabaceae Cassia grandis pink shower tree -5 L
Fabaceae Cassia javanica pink shower tree -1 L
Fabaceae Cassia xnealiae rainbow shower tree -8 L
Fabaceae Centrosema pubescens centro 11 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Ceratonia siliqua carob tree 0 L
Fabaceae Chamaecrista nictitans partridge pea 0 L
Fabaceae Clitoria ternatea butterfly pea 9 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Colvillea racemosa Colville's glory -8 L
Fabaceae Copaifera langsdorffii diesel tree 4 EVALUATE
Fabaceae Crotalaria juncea Indian hemp -3 L
Fabaceae Cyamopsis tetragonoloba cluster bean -11 L
Fabaceae Dalbergia latifolia East Indian rosewood 5 EVALUATE
Fabaceae Dalbergia retusa Nicaragua rosewood 0 L
Fabaceae Dalbergia sissoo Indian rosewood 13 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Delonix regia royal poinciana -1 L
Fabaceae Derris elliptica tubaroot 7 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Desmanthus virgatus slender mimosa 12 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Desmodium nicaraguense shrubby desmodium -2 L
Fabaceae Desmodium umbellatum horse bush 5 L
Fabaceae Dichrostachys cinerea sickle bush 16 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Diphysa americana guachipelín 0 L
Fabaceae Dolichos lablab lablab bean -1 L
Fabaceae Enterolobium cyclocarpum ear tree 3 L
Fabaceae Erythrina abyssinica Erythrina 5 L
Fabaceae Erythrina corallodendron coral bean tree 6 EVALUATE
Fabaceae Erythrina crista-galli cockspur coral tree 6 L
Fabaceae Erythrina sigmoidea none 6 EVALUATE
Fabaceae Erythrina subumbrans December tree 5 EVALUATE
Fabaceae Erythrina variegata coral tree -2 L
Fabaceae Falcataria moluccana albizia 8 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Flemingia macrophylla Flemingia 4 L
Fabaceae Flemingia strobilifera wild hops 3 EVALUATE
Fabaceae Gliricidia sepium mother of cocoa -3 L
Fabaceae Griffonia simplicifolia Griffonia 0 L
Fabaceae Haematoxylum campechianum logwood 8 H (HPWRA)[revised]
Fabaceae Hymenea courbaril west indian locust 0 L
Fabaceae Indigofera suffruticosa wild indigo 11 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Indigofera teysmannii neel 0 L
Fabaceae Inga edulis ice cream bean 2 EVALUATE
Fabaceae Inocarpus fagifer Polynesian chestnut -3 L
Fabaceae Intsia bijuga kwila -6 L
Fabaceae Lespedeza cuneata Chinese lespedeza 17 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Leucaena leucocephala leucaena 15 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Lotus berthelotti parrot's beak -1 L
Fabaceae Lupinus albifrons silver lupine 5.5 Evaluate
Fabaceae Lysiloma watsonii lysiloma -5 L
Fabaceae Macroptilium atropurpureum siratro 7 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Macroptilium bracteatum burgundy bean -1 L
Fabaceae Macrotyloma axillare perennial horsegram 10 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Mimosa diplotricha giant sensitive plant 24 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Mimosa pigra catclaw mimosa 25 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Mimosa tenuiflora jurema 7 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Mucuna pruriens cowitch 7 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Neonotonia wightii perennial soybean 7 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Parkia speciosa petai -3 L
Fabaceae Parkinsonia aculeata Jerusalum thorn 20 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Peltophorum pterocarpum yellow flame -4 L
Fabaceae Pithecellobium dulce Madras thorn 14 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Pongamia pinnata Indian beech 9 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Prosopis juliflora thorny kiawe 19 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Pterocarpus dalbergioides Andaman redwood -3 L
Fabaceae Pterocarpus indicus Burmese rosewood 4 L (Hawai‘i)
Fabaceae Pueraria montana var. lobata kudzu vine 24 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Pueraria phaseoloides tropical kudzu 17 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Samanea saman monkeypod tree 4 L
Fabaceae Saraca indica AshLa tree -7 L
Fabaceae Schotia brachypetala elephant hedge bean tree 0 L
Fabaceae Senna alata candle bush 10 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Senna bicapsularis Christmasbush 8 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Senna siamea Siamese cassia 5 L
Fabaceae Senna spectabilis spectacular Cassia 11 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Senna surattensis kolomona 0 EVALUATE (Revised 04/27/04; Field reports from Hawai‘i indicate it may be a serious pest; HEPEC documentation in progress)
Fabaceae Serianthes kanehirae ukall -5 L
Fabaceae Sesbania grandiflora agati 2 L
Fabaceae Sesbania punicea rattlebox 9.5 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Sesbania sesban Egyptian riverhemp 11 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Sophora tomentosa yellow necklacepod -3 L
Fabaceae Spartium junceum Spanish broom 12 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Strongylodon macrobotrys jade vine -9 L
Fabaceae Stylosanthes guianensis stylo 11 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Stylosanthes scabra shrubby stylo 1 L
Fabaceae Tamarindus indica tamarind -3 L
Fabaceae Tephrosia candida white tephrosia 8 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Tephrosia purpurea pila 7 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Tipuana tipu tipu tree 0 L
Fabaceae Ulex europaeus gorse 20 H (Hawai‘i)
Fabaceae Wallaceodendron celebicum banuyo 0 L (HPWRA)
Geraniaceae Pelargonium peltatum ivyleaf geranium 0 L
Gesneriaceae Episcia cupreata flame violet 3 L
Gesneriaceae Episcia dianthiflora lace flower vine -2 L
Grossulariaceae Brexia madagascariensis Brexia -6 L
Grossulariaceae Escallonia rubra var. macrantha redclaws 4 Evaluate
Heliconiaceae Heliconia caribaea lobster claw -1 L
Heliconiaceae Heliconia psittacorum parrot's beak 11 H (HPWRA)
Heliconiaceae Heliconia stricta small lobster claw 6 L
Hernandiaceae Hernandia ovigera Jack in the box tree -4 L
Hernandiaceae Hernandia sonora toporite -5 L
Hippocastanaceae Aesculus californica California buckeye 0 L
Juncaceae Luzula nivea snowy wood rush 4 L
Juncaceae Luzula sylvactica greater woodrush 7 H (HPWRA)
Lamiaceae Ajuga reptans common bugleweed 11 H (HPWRA)
Lamiaceae Leonotis nepetifolia annual lion's ear 19 H (HPWRA)
Lamiaceae Plectranthus prostratus pillow plant 5 L
Lamiaceae Thymus vulgaris thyme 4 L
Lauraceae Cinnamomum aromaticum chinese cinnamon -3 L
Lauraceae Cinnamomum camphora camphor tree 14 H (HPWRA)
Lauraceae Cinnamomum verum cinnamon tree 10 H (HPWRA)
Lauraceae Persea americana avocado 3 L
Lecythidaceae Barringtonia asiatica sea putat -8 L
Leeaceae Leea guineensis Hawaiian holly -1 L
Liliaceae Agapanthus africanus lily of the Nile 2.5 L
Liliaceae Agapanthus praecox common Agapanthus 12 H (HPWRA)
Liliaceae Allium sativum garlic -4 L
Liliaceae Asparagus densiflorus asparagus fern 15 H (HPWRA)
Liliaceae Asparagus falcatus sicklethorn 11 H (HPWRA)
Liliaceae Asparagus setaceus common asparagus fern 13 H (HPWRA)
Liliaceae Aspidistra elatior cast iron plant -1 L
Liliaceae Chlorophytum comosum spiderplant 8 L (Hawai‘i)
Liliaceae Crinum asiaticum Crinum lily -4 L
Liliaceae Dianella caerulea cerulean flaxlily 5 EVALUATE
Liliaceae Dianella revoluta spreading flax lily 2 L
Liliaceae Dianella tasmanica Tasman flax lily 0 L
Liliaceae Hippeastrum puniceum Barbados lily 2 L
Liliaceae Liriope muscari lilyturf 4.5 L
Liliaceae Liriope spicata creeping lilyturf 7.5 H (HPWRA)
Liliaceae Ophiopogon japonicus mondo grass 3 L
Linaceae Linum usitatissimum flax 9.5 H (HPWRA)
Loganiaceae Fagraea berteroana pua keni keni -1 L
Lythraceae Cuphea hyssopifolia false heather 5 L
Lythraceae Cuphea ignea Mexican cigar plant 3 L
Lythraceae Cuphea subuligera mauve cuphea 1 L
Lythraceae Lagerstroemia indica crape myrtle 6 L
Lythraceae Lagerstroemia indica L. X L. fauriei crepe myrtle hybrid 4 L
Lythraceae Lagerstroemia speciosa queen's crape myrtle -4 L
Lythraceae Lagerstroemia tomentosa leza wood -2 L
Magnoliaceae Magnolia grandiflora southern magnolia 0 L
Magnoliaceae Michelia champaca orange champaca -5 L
Magnoliaceae Michelia figo banana shrub -5 L
Magnoliaceae Michelia x alba white champaca -6 L
Malphigiaceae Galphimia gracilis slender goldshower -2 L
Malphigiaceae Mascagnia macroptera yellow butterfly vine 6 EVALUATE
Malpighiaceae Bunchosia argentea peanut butter fruit -3 L
Malpighiaceae Malpighia glabra wild crapemyrtle -5 L (HPWRA)
Malpigiaceae Hiptage benghalensis hiptage 8 H (HPWRA)
Malpigiaceae Stigmaphyllon floribundum woolly Amazonvine -6 L
Malpigiaceae Tristellateia australasiae Galphimia vine -3 L
Malvaceae Alyogyne huegelii lilac hibiscus 0 L
Malvaceae Hibiscus calyphyllus lemonyellow rosemallow 1 L
Malvaceae Hibiscus immaculatus Koki'o Ke'oke'o -3 L
Malvaceae Hibiscus insularis Philip Island hibiscus -3 L
Malvaceae Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Chinese hibiscus -2 L
Malvaceae Hibiscus sabdariffa roselle -3 L
Malvaceae Hibiscus schizopetalus coral hibiscus -4 L
Malvaceae Lavatera maritima tree mallow -6 L
Malvaceae Malvaviscus penduliflorus Turk's cap -9 L
Malvaceae Montezuma speciosissima maga -1 L
Malvaceae Talipariti elatum blue mahoe 5 L
Malvaceae Thespesia populnea milo 9 H (HPWRA)
Marantaceae Calathea majestica -1 L
Marantaceae Pleiostachya pruinosa prayer plant 2 L
Marantaceae Stromanthe macrochlamys Stromanthe 0 L
Marantaceae Stromanthe tonckat stromanthe 1 L
Marattiaceae Angiopteris evecta giant fern 8 H (HPWRA) [revised 07/03/08]
Melastomataceae Dissotis rotundifolia dissotis 10 H (HPWRA)
Melastomataceae Medinilla cummingii chandelier tree 6 EVALUATE
Melastomataceae Medinilla magnifica Malaysian orchid 8 H (HPWRA) [revised 5/12/08]
Melastomataceae Medinilla scortechinii Medinilla 5 EVALUATE
Melastomataceae Melastoma candidum Indian rhododendron 13 H (Hawai‘i)
Melastomataceae Miconia calvescens Miconia 14 H (Hawai‘i)
Melastomataceae Tetrazygia bicolor Florida clover ash 3 EVALUATE
Melastomataceae Tibouchina granulosa purple glory bush 1 L
Melastomataceae Tibouchina herbacea cane tibouchina 24 H (HPWRA)
Melastomataceae Tibouchina multiflora today-tomorrow tibouchina -4 L
Melastomataceae Tibouchina urvilleana glory bush 10 H (HPWRA)
Melastomataceae Topobea parasitica Topobea 3 H (HPWRA)
Melastomatceae Medinilla heterophylla 9 H (HPWRA)
Meliaceae Aglaia odorata Chinese perfume plant -4 L
Meliaceae Azadirachta indica neem 10 H (HPWRA) [updated 2July 2009]
Meliaceae Cedrela odorata Spanish cedar 2 EVALUATE
Meliaceae Khaya nyasica East African mahogany -1 L
Meliaceae Khaya senegalensis dry zone mahogany 0 L
Meliaceae Melia azedarach Chinaberry tree 14 H (HPWRA)
Meliaceae Swietenia macrophylla large-leaf mahogany -2 L
Meliaceae Swietenia mahagoni West Indian mahogany -6 L
Meliaceae Toona ciliata Australian red cedar 2 EVALUATE
Moraceae Artocarpus altilis breadfruit -12 L
Moraceae Artocarpus heterophyllus jackfruit 1 L
Moraceae Artocarpus odoratissimus marang -3 L
Moraceae Broussonetia papyrifera (Hawaiian seedless) paper mulberry 3 L
Moraceae Ficus benghalensis Indian banyon 3 L
Moraceae Ficus benjamina weeping fig 4 EVALUATE
Moraceae Ficus carica cv. brownturkey common fig 2 L
Moraceae Ficus deltoidea mistletoe fig 0 L
Moraceae Ficus elastica Indian rubberplant -5 L
Moraceae Ficus lyrata fiddleleaf fig -5 L
Moraceae Ficus macrophylla Moreton bay fig 3 EVALUATE
Moraceae Ficus microcarpa Chinese banyon 10 H (HPWRA)
Moraceae Ficus natalensis Natal fig 1 EVALUATE
Moraceae Ficus pumila creeping fig 2 L
Moraceae Ficus religiosa bodhi tree -4 L
Moraceae Ficus rubiginosa Port Jackson fig 7 H (HPWRA)
Moraceae Ficus tikoua waipahu fig -3 L
Moringaceae Moringa oleifera horse-raddish tree 1 L
Musaceae Musa acuminata Cavendish banana -11 L
Musaceae Musa balbisiana Japanese fiber banana -2 L
Myoporaceae Myoporum laetum Ngaio 6 EVALUATE
Myricaceae Morella faya firetree 8 H (Hawai‘i)
Myrsinaceae Ardisia crenata coral ardisia 10 H (HPWRA) [revised 07/03/08]
Myrsinaceae Ardisia elliptica shoebutton ardisia 11 H (Hawai'i)
Myrtaceae Callistemon citrinus crimson bottlebush 0 L
Myrtaceae Callistemon rigidus stiff bottlebrush 1 L
Myrtaceae Callistemon viminalis weeping bottlebrush 3 L
Myrtaceae Corymbia citriodora lemon-scented gum 9 H (HPWRA)
Myrtaceae Corymbia ficifolia red-flowering gum -7 L
Myrtaceae Eucalyptus caesia silver princess 0 L
Myrtaceae Eucalyptus cinerea silver dollar gum 4 L
Myrtaceae Eucalyptus crebra ironbark -1 L
Myrtaceae Eucalyptus deglupta Indonesian gum 2 L
Myrtaceae Eucalyptus gardneri blue mallet 0 L
Myrtaceae Eucalyptus globulus blue gum 10 H (HPWRA)
Myrtaceae Eucalyptus grandis rose gum 11 H (HPWRA)
Myrtaceae Eucalyptus intermedia bloodwood 1 L
Myrtaceae Eucalyptus kruseana Kruse's mallee 0 L
Myrtaceae Eucalyptus microcorys Australian tallowwood 1 L
Myrtaceae Eucalyptus paniculata grey ironbark 11 H (HPWRA)
Myrtaceae Eucalyptus platypus round-leaved moort 0 L
Myrtaceae Eucalyptus robusta swamp mahogany 3 L
Myrtaceae Eucalyptus salubris gimlet -3 L
Myrtaceae Eucalyptus sideroxylon black ironbark, 2 L
Myrtaceae Eucalyptus stoatei scarlet pear gum -2 L
Myrtaceae Eucalyptus tereticornis forest red gum 5 L
Myrtaceae Eucalyptus torelliana blood-leaf gum 4 EVALUATE
Myrtaceae Eucalyptus torquata coral gum -1 L
Myrtaceae Eucalyptus urophylla Timor mountain gum 4 L
Myrtaceae Eucalyptus yarraensis yarra gum 1 L
Myrtaceae Eugenia uniflora Surinam cherry 12 H (HPWRA)
Myrtaceae Leptospermum scoparium broom teatree 3 H (HPWRA)
Myrtaceae Lophostemon confertus Brisbane box -3 L
Myrtaceae Melaleuca bracteata river tea-tree 10 H (HPWRA)
Myrtaceae Melaleuca incana var. prostrata prostrate gray honey myrtle 0 L
Myrtaceae Melaleuca leucadendra broadleaved paperback -1 L (HPWRA)
Myrtaceae Melaleuca nesophila mauve honey-myrtle 8 H (HPWRA)
Myrtaceae Melaleuca quinquenervia paper bark tree 15 H (HPWRA)
Myrtaceae Melaleuca styphelioides prickly-leaf teatree -2 L (HPWRA)
Myrtaceae Metrosideros excelsa New Zealand christmas tree 5 EVALUATE
Myrtaceae Metrosideros kermadecensis Kermadec pohutukawa 3 EVALUATE
Myrtaceae Myrcianthes fragrans Simpson stopper 0 L
Myrtaceae Myrciaria cauliflora jaboticaba -2 L
Myrtaceae Pimenta dioica allspice tree 7 H (HPWRA)
Myrtaceae Pimenta racemosa bay rum tree 4 EVALUATE
Myrtaceae Psidium cattleianum strawberry guava 18 H (Hawai‘i)
Myrtaceae Psidium guajava common guava 21 H (Hawai‘i)
Myrtaceae Psidium guineense Brazilian guava 7 H (HPWRA)
Myrtaceae Rhodomyrtus tomentosa rose myrtle 8 H (Hawai‘i)
Myrtaceae Syzygium malaccense mountain apple 0 L
Myrtaceae Syzygium polyanthum Indian bayleaf 7 H (HPWRA)
Myrtaceae. Eucalyptus cloeziana Queensland messmate -1 L
Myrtaceae. Eucalyptus dunnii Dunn's white gum 0 L
Myrtaceae. Eucalyptus pellita red mahogany 3 L
Myrtaceae. Eucalyptus saligna sydney blue gum 7 H (HPWRA)
Nyctaginaceae Bougainvillea glabra paperflower -1 L
Ochnaceae Ochna serrulata Mickey Mouse plant 11 H (HPWRA)
Ochnaceae Ochna thomasiana Mickey-mouse bush 8 H (HPWRA)
Oleaceae Fraxinus uhdei tropical ash 11 H (HPWRA) [revised 5/12/08]
Oleaceae Jasminum fluminense Brazilian jasmine 16 H (HPWRA)
Oleaceae Jasminum mesnyi primrose jasmine 2.5 L
Oleaceae Jasminum multiflorum star jasmine 2 L
Oleaceae Jasminum polyanthum winter jasmine 10 H (HPWRA)
Oleaceae Ligustrum japonicum Japanese privet 6 EVALUATE
Oleaceae Ligustrum lucidum Glossy privet 6 EVALUATE
Oleaceae Ligustrum sinense Chinese privet 11 H (HPWRA)
Oleaceae Noronhia emarginata Madagascar olive 5 EVALUATE
Oleaceae Olea europaea olive tree 5 EVALUATE
Onagraceae Gaura lindheimeri gaura 6 L
Oxalidaceae Averrhoa carambola starfruit -1 L
Palmae Areca catechu betel nut palm -4 L
Palmae Pritchardia pacifica Fiji fan palm -4 L
Palmae Rhaphis excelsa lady palm 0 L
Pandanaceae Pandanus pygmaeus small screwpine 0 L
Passifloraceae Passiflora edulis passion fruit 6 L
Passifloraceae Passiflora quadrangularis giant granadilla 11 H (HPWRA)
Passifloraceae Passiflora rubra red passionfruit 9 H (HPWRA)
Passifloraceae Passiflora tarminiana banana poka 24 H (Hawai`i)
Passifloraceae Passiflora vitifolia crimson passion flower -1 L
Phytolaccaeae Phytolacca dioica ombu 9 H (HPWRA)
Pinaceae Pinus elliottii slash pine 2 EVALUATE
Pinaceae Pinus radiata Monterey pine 5 EVALUATE (Revised 04/27/04; Field reports from Hawai‘i indicate it may be a serious pest; HEPEC documentation in progress)
Piperaceae Peperomia obtusifolia baby rubberplant -4 L
Piperaceae Piper aduncum spiked pepper 18 H (HPWRA)
Piperaceae Piper methysticum kava -4 L
Pittosporaceae Pittosporum resiniferum petroleum nut 6 EVALUATE
Pittosporaceae Pittosporum tobira Japanese pittosporum 3.5 EVALUATE
Pittosporaceae Pittosporum undulatum Australian cheesewood 7 H (HPWRA)
Pittosporaceae Pittosporum viridiflorum Cape cheesewood 3 EVALUATE
Plumbaginaceae Plumbago auriculata cape leadwort 6 L
Poaceae Agrostis stolonifera carpet bentgrass 19 H (HPWRA)
Poaceae Andropogon glomeratus bushy bluestem 14 H (HPWRA)
Poaceae Anthoxanthum odoratum sweet vernalgrass 11 H (HPWRA)
Poaceae Arundo donax Arundo 12 H (HPWRA)
Poaceae Axonopus compressus broadleaf carpet grass 15 H (HPWRA)
Poaceae Axonopus fissifolius. carpet grass 16 H (HPWRA)
Poaceae Bambusa chungii Emporer's blue bamboo -1 L
Poaceae Bambusa glaucophylla Malay dwarf bamboo -3 L
Poaceae Bambusa lako Timor Black Bamboo -1 L (HPWRA)
Poaceae Bambusa oldhamii Oldham's bamboo 1 EVALUATE
Poaceae Bambusa textilis weaver's bamboo -3 L
Poaceae Bambusa vulgaris common bamboo 5 L
Poaceae Bothriochloa bladhii Caucasian bluestem 19 H (HPWRA)
Poaceae Bouteloua aristidoides needle grama 9 H
Poaceae Brachiaria mutica para grass 12 H (Hawai‘i)
Poaceae Buchloe dactyloides Amer buffalo grass 4.5 L
Poaceae Chasmanthium latifolium northern sea oats 8.5 H (HPWRA)
Poaceae Chrysopogon zizanioides (fertile) vetiver grass wild type 9 H (HPWRA)
Poaceae Chrysopogon zizanioides 'Sunshine' vetiver grass "sunshine" -8 L
Poaceae Cortaderia jubata Andean pampas grass 26 H (HPWRA)
Poaceae Cortaderia selloana pampas grass 24 H (HPWRA)
Poaceae Cymbopogon citratus lemongrass -2 L
Poaceae Echinochloa esculenta Japanese millet 8 H (HPWRA)
Poaceae Eleusine coracana finger millet 2 EVALUATE
Poaceae Eragrostis elliottii blue lovegrass 12 H (HPWRA)
Poaceae Eremochloa ophiuroides centipede grass 8 L (Hawai‘i)
Poaceae Festuca arundinacea tall fescue 17.5 H (HPWRA)
Poaceae Imperata cylindrica cogon grass 22 H (HPWRA)
Poaceae Lagurus ovatus hare's tail grass 7 H (HPWRA)
Poaceae Lolium multiflorum annual ryegrass 9 H (HPWRA)
Poaceae Melica transsilvanica red spire 7 H (HPWRA)
Poaceae Melinis nerviglumis pink crystals 7 H (HPWRA)
Poaceae Miscanthus floridulus giant miscanthus 13 H (HPWRA)
Poaceae Nassella tenuissima Mexican feather grass 24 H (HPWRA)
Poaceae Nastus elatus New Guinea Edible Bamboo 2 L
Poaceae Otatea aztecorum Mexican weeping bamboo 4 L
Poaceae Panicum maximum Guinea grass 17 H (Hawai‘i)
Poaceae Panicum virgatum switchgrass 11 H (HPWRA)
Poaceae Paspalum conjugatum Hilograss 28 H (Hawai‘i)
Poaceae Paspalum dilatatum Dallis grass 12 H (HPWRA)
Poaceae Paspalum notatum bahia grass 16 H (HPWRA)
Poaceae Paspalum vaginatum seashore paspalum 7 H (HPWRA)
Poaceae Pennisetum clandestinum kikuyu grass 18 H (HPWRA)
Poaceae Pennisetum glaucum variety 'purple majesty' ornamental pearl millet 3 L
Poaceae Pennisetum petiolare petioled fountaingrass 7 H (HPWRA)
Poaceae Pennisetum purpureum elephant grass 16 H (HPWRA)
Poaceae Pennisetum setaceum fountain grass 26 H (Hawai‘i)
Poaceae Pennisetum villosum feathertop 24 H (HPWRA)
Poaceae Poa pratensis Kentucky bluegrass 14 H (HPWRA)
Poaceae Polypogon monspeliensis rabbitfoot grass 18 H (HPWRA)
Poaceae Saccharum officinarum sugar cane -2 L
Poaceae Saccharum spontaneum wild sugarcane 17 H (HPWRA)
Poaceae Schizachyrium condensatum bush beardgrass 8 H (HPWRA)
Poaceae Schizostachyum brachycladum sacred Bali bamboo -1 L
Poaceae Schizostachyum glaucifolium Hawaiian bamboo 0 L
Poaceae Sorghum bicolor ssp. Drummondii shattercane 17.5 H (HPWRA)
Poaceae Stenotaphrum secundatum St. Augustine grass 15 H (HPWRA)
Poaceae Zoysia japonica Korean lawngrass 6 L
Poaceae Zoysia tenuifolia templegrass -2 L
Podocarpaceae Afrocarpus falcatus bastard yellow wood 0 L
Podocarpaceae Podocarpus chinensis maki -4 L
Podocarpaceae Podocarpus elatus plum pine -2 L
Podocarpaceae Podocarpus gracilior African fern pine 0 L
Podocarpaceae Podocarpus macrophyllus Japanese yew -3 L
Polygonaceae Antigonon leptopus Mexican creeper 19 H (HPWRA)
Polygonaceae Coccoloba uvifera sea grape -5 L
Polygonaceae Fagopyrum esculentum buckwheat -6 L
Polygonaceae Persicaria chinensis Chinese knotweed 14 H (HPWRA)
Polygonaceae Polygonum capitatum pink knotweed 13 H (HPWRA)
Polypodiaceae Microsorum musifolium crocodile fern 5 L
Polypodiaceae Pyrrosia piloselloides dragons scale fern 6 H (HPWRA)
Primulaceae Lysimachia fortunei variety super snow Lysimachia 8 H (HPWRA)
Proteaceae Grevillea banksii red silk oak 8 H (HPWRA)
Proteaceae Grevillea robusta silk oak 5 EVALUATE (Revised 04/27/04; Field reports from Hawai‘i indicate it may be a serious H; HEPEC documentation in progress)
Proteaceae Leucospermum bolusii Gordon's Bay pincushion -4 L
Proteaceae Macadamia integrifolia macadamia -1 L
Proteaceae Stenocarpus sinuatus wheel-of-fire -4 L (HPWRA)
Punicaceae Punica granatum pomegranate 3.5 L
Rhamnaceae Alphitonia zizyphoides toi 0 L
Rhamnaceae Berchemia zeyheri pink ivory -3 L
Rhamnaceae Frangula californica ssp. Californica coffeeberry 5 H (HPWRA)
Rhamnaceae Maesopsis eminii umbrella tree 4 EVALUATE
Rhamnaceae Zizyphus mauritiana Indian jujube 9.5 H (HPWRA)
Rhizophoraceae Carallia brachiata Corkwood 3 EVALUATE
Rosaceae Cotoneaster pannosus silverleaf cotoneaster 7 H (HPWRA)
Rosaceae Eriobotrya japonica loquat 0.5 EVALUATE
Rosaceae Photinia davidiana photina -2 L
Rosaceae Potentilla verna spring cinquefoil -2 L
Rosaceae Prunus cerasifera cherry plum 8 H (HPWRA)
Rosaceae Pyracantha angustifolia narrowleaf firethorn 13 H (HPWRA)
Rosaceae Rhaphiolepis indica Indian hawthorn 3 L
Rosaceae Rosa laevigata Cherokee rose 16 H (HPWRA)
Rosaceae Rosa multiflora multiflora rose 12 H (HPWRA)
Rosaceae Rubus argutus prickly Florida blackberry 21.5 H (Hawai‘i)
Rosaceae Rubus discolor Himalayan blackberry 24 H (HPWRA)
Rosaceae Rubus ellipticus yellow Himalayan raspberry 18 H (HPWRA)
Rosaceae Rubus rosifolius thimbleberry 10 H (HPWRA)
Rubiaceae Atractocarpus fitzalanii Randia 3 H (HPWRA)
Rubiaceae Cinchona pubescens red cinchona 9 H (Hawai‘i)
Rubiaceae Coffea arabica coffee 2 H (HPWRA)
Rubiaceae Coffea liberica Liberian coffee 1 EVALUATE
Rubiaceae Coprosma repens creeping mirrorplant 1 L
Rubiaceae Gardenia jasminoides Cape jasmine 0 L
Rubiaceae Gardenia taitensis Tahitian gardenia -4 L
Rubiaceae Hamelia patens firebush 7 H (HPWRA)
Rubiaceae Ixora chinensis Chinese ixora -2 L
Rubiaceae Ixora coccinea jungle flame 4 EVALUATE
Rubiaceae Morinda citrifolia noni 10 H (HPWRA)
Rubiaceae Mussaenda erythrophylla red mussaenda 0 L
Rubiaceae Mussaenda frondosa flag bush -4 L
Rubiaceae Mussaenda philippica white mussaenda -3 L
Rubiaceae Paederia foetida maile pilau 21 H (Hawai‘i)
Rubiaceae Posoqueria latifolia monkey apple -2 L
Rubiaceae Pseudomussaenda flava dwarf yellow Mussaenda -6 L
Rubiaceae Rondeletia amoena Rondeletia -2 L
Rubiaceae Rondeletia odorata Rondeletia -4 L
Rubiaceae Serissa japonica serissa -10 L
Rutaceae Citrus aurantifolia lime 2 L
Rutaceae Citrus limon lemon -3 L
Rutaceae Citrus maxima pummelo 0 L
Rutaceae Citrus reticulata Mandarin orange -5 L
Rutaceae Citrus sinensis sweet orange -2 L
Rutaceae Citrus x paradisi grapefruit -8 L
Rutaceae Citrus×Citrofortunella mitis calamondin 0 L
Rutaceae Flindersia brayleyana Queensland Maple -3 L
Rutaceae Murraya paniculata mock orange 6 EVALUATE
Salicaceae Salix babylonica Babylon weeping willow 9 H (HPWRA)
Salviniaceae Salvinia molesta giant salvinia 29 H (Hawai‘i)
Santalaceae Santalum album Indian sandalwood -3 L
Sapindaceae Cardiospermum grandiflorum showy balloonvine 18 H (HPWRA)
Sapindaceae Cardiospermum halicacabum baloon vine 12 H (HPWRA)
Sapindaceae Cupaniopsis anacardioides carrotwood 6 EVALUATE
Sapindaceae Filicium decipiens fern tree 1 EVALUATE
Sapindaceae Harpullia pendula tulipwood -4 L
Sapindaceae Koelreuteria elegans Chinese flame tree 8 H (HPWRA) [revised]
Sapindaceae Litchi chinensis lychee -6 L
Sapindaceae Majidea zanguebarica black pearl tree -2 L
Sapotaceae Chrysophyllum oliviforme satin leaf 7 H (HPWRA)
Sapotaceae Mimusops caffra coastal red milkwood -1 L
Saxifragaceae Saxifraga sarmentosa strawberry saxifrage 3 L
Scrophulariaceae Digitalis purpurea foxglove 7.5 H (HPWRA)
Scrophulariaceae Leucophyllum frutescens Texas ranger -3 L
Scrophulariaceae Lophospermum erubescens creeping gloxinia 5 L
Scrophulariaceae Lophospermum scandens twining snapdragon -2 L
Scrophulariaceae Mecardonia procumbens 'Goldflake' baby jump-up 7 H (HPWRA)
Scrophulariaceae Otacanthus caeruleus Brazilian snapdragon -4 L
Scrophulariaceae Paulownia elongata Paulownia -1 L
Scrophulariaceae Paulownia fortunei empress diamond 1 L
Scrophulariaceae Paulownia tomentosa princess tree 9 H (HPWRA)
Scrophulariaceae Russelia equisetiformis fire cracker plant -2 L
Simaroubaceae Ailanthus altissima tree of heaven 21 H (HPWRA)
Simmondsiaceae Simmondsia chinensis Jojoba -3 L
Solanaceae Brugmansia x candida angel's trumpet 2 L
Solanaceae Brunfelsia densifolia serpentine hill raintree -4 L
Solanaceae Capsicum frutescens wild pepper 5 L
Solanaceae Cestrum elegans crimson cestrum 18 H (HPWRA)
Solanaceae Cestrum nocturnum night-blooming jasmine 17 H (HPWRA)
Solanaceae Lycium chinense Chinese desert-thorn 8 H (HPWRA)
Solanaceae Nicotiana glauca tree tobacco 15 H (HPWRA)
Solanaceae Solandra maxima cup of gold 3 EVALUATE
Solanaceae Solanum capsicoides Cockroach berry 15 H (HPWRA)
Solanaceae Solanum muricatum melon pear 5 L
Solanaceae Solanum seaforthianum Brazilian nightshade 9 H (HPWRA)
Solanaceae Streptosolen jamesonii marmalade bush 2 L
Sphagnaceae Sphagnum palustre peat moss 12.5 H (HPWRA)
Sterculiaceae Brachychiton acerifolius Illawarra flame tree -5 L
Sterculiaceae Fremontodendron californicum flannelbush 3 L
Sterculiaceae Heritiera littoralis loLing-glass tree -2 L
Sterculiaceae Sterculia apetala Panama tree 4 Evaluate
Sterculiaceae Sterculia foetida Java olive 3 L
Sterculiaceae Theobroma cacao cocoa -5 L
Strelitziaceae Ravenala madagascariensis traveller's palm 5 L (Hawai‘i)
Strelitziaceae Strelitzia nicolai bird-of-paradise-tree -1 L
Strelitziaceae Strelitzia reginae bird of paradise -3 L
Taccaceae Tacca leontopetaloides Polynesian arrowroot 0 L
Tamaricaceae Tamarix aphylla Athel tamarisk 13 H (HPWRA)
Tamaricaceae Tamarix gallica saltcedar 8.5 H (HPWRA)
Taxodiaceae Cryptomeria japonica Japanese cedar -3 L
Theaceae Camellia sinensis tea -4 L
Tiliaceae Grewia occidentalis lavender star flower -3 L
Tiliaceae Heliocarpus popayanensis moho 7 H (HPWRA)
Tiliaceae Muntingia calabura Jamaica cherry 12 H (HPWRA)
Turneraceae Erblichia odorata butterfly tree 0 L
Turneraceae Turnera ulmifolia yellow alder 10 H (HPWRA)
Typhaceae Typha latifolia common cattail 26 H (HPWRA)
Ulmaceae Ulmus pumila Siberian elm 9 H (HPWRA)
Urticaceae Pilea cadierei aluminum plant -5 L
Urticaceae Pilea microphylla rockweed 6 EVALUATE
Urticaceae Pilea nummulariifolia creeping Charlie 0 L
Verbenaceae Callicarpa japonica Japanese beautyberry 5 EVALUATE
Verbenaceae Citharexylum spinosum fiddlewood 7 H (HPWRA)
Verbenaceae Clerodendrum buchananii red clerodendrum 7 H (HPWRA)
Verbenaceae Clerodendrum glabrum Natal glorybower -1 L
Verbenaceae Clerodendrum macrostegium velvetleaf glorybower 8 H (HPWRA)
Verbenaceae Clerodendrum paniculatum pagoda flower 5 EVALUATE
Verbenaceae Clerodendrum quadriloculare bronze leaved clerodendrum 11 H (HPWRA)
Verbenaceae Duranta erecta golden dew drop 13 H (HPWRA)
Verbenaceae Gmelina arborea gmelina 2 L
Verbenaceae Holmskioldia sanguinea Chinese hatplant -1 L
Verbenaceae Holmskioldia tettensis purple Chinese hatplant -5 L
Verbenaceae Lantana camara lantana wildtype 21 H (Hawai‘i)
Verbenaceae Lantana montevidensis trailing lantana 16 H (HPWRA)
Verbenaceae Oxera pulchella royal vine -1 L
Verbenaceae Petrea volubilis sandpaper vine -1 L
Verbenaceae Phyla nodiflora matchweed 5 H (HPWRA)
Verbenaceae Tectona grandis teak -5 L
Vitaceae Cissus discolor rex begonia vine 1 EVALUATE
Vitaceae Cissus nodosa Javanese treebine 8 H (HPWRA)
Vitaceae Cissus repens cissus 7 H (HPWRA)
Vitaceae Cissus rotundifolia Venezuelan treebine 9 H (HPWRA)
Vitaceae Tetrastigma pubinerve Tetrastigma 8 H (HPWRA)
Vitaceae Tetrastigma voinierianum lizard plant 8 H (HPWRA)
Zamiaceae Zamia furfuracea cardboard plant -2 L
Zingiberaceae Alpinia purpurata red ginger 4 EVALUATE
Zingiberaceae Alpinia zerumbet shell ginger 10 H (HPWRA)
Zingiberaceae Boesenbergia rotunda Chinese-keys 0 L
Zingiberaceae Curcuma longa tumeric -8 L
Zingiberaceae Curcuma zedoaria rose turmeric -3 L
Zingiberaceae Etlingera elatior torch ginger 1 L (Hawai‘i)
Zingiberaceae Hedychium coronarium white ginger 14 H (Hawai‘i)
Zingiberaceae Hedychium gardnerianum kahili ginger 16 H (Hawai‘i)
Zingiberaceae Kaempferia galanga galanga 1 L
Zingiberaceae Zingiber zerumbet shampoo ginger -1 L
Zygophyllaceae Guaiacum officinale lignum vitae -6 L

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