Hawaii-Pacific Weed Risk Assessment [HP-WRA] is a research project by Curt Daehler (University of Hawaii) and Julie Denslow (USDA Forest Service) that has been supported by funding from the USDA Forest Service and from the Hawaii Division of Forestry and Wildlife Urban and Community Forestry program.  The WRA scoring system was originally developed in Australia and New Zealand for the evaluation of plants being imported. The intent of the HP-WRA research project is to identify plants that pose a high weed risk in Hawaii and other Pacific Islands.

The HP-WRA score does not measure actual invasiveness or economic or ecological harm in the field. Rather, a designation of H(HPWRA) is a prediction that a species will become invasive .  The HP-WRA does not measure species benefits in terms of economic, ecological, public health, medicinal, historic, community, cultural, tourism, and esthetic value; nor does it determine if a suitable alternative species exists. 

The HP-WRA only considers published information on invasiveness in Hawaii or elsewhere and it does not include an actual "in-the field" evaluation of current impacts in Hawaii. Another evaluation protocol called the Hawaii Exotic Plant Evaluation Protocol (HEPEP) is being developed to provide a current field evaluation of species that have been designated H(HPWRA).

The HP-WRA ratings have no regulatory authority and the HP-WRA "list" is not an official State list of invasive plants. By statute, the Hawaii Department of Agriculture is solely responsible for determining which plant and animal species are prohibited or permitted into the State (Hawaii Administrative Rules 4:68:1 - 'Noxious Weed Rules'). To determine which species are prohibited in Hawaii, please consult the official State of Hawaii List of Plant Species Designated as Noxious Weeds.

WRA designation   Meaning
    L   Not currently recognized as invasive in Hawaii, and not likely to have major ecological or economic impacts on other Pacific Islands based on the HP-WRA screening process
    L(Hawai'i) Not currently recognized as invasive in Hawaii based on a track record of not becoming naturalized despite being widely planted in Hawaii for at least 40 years. 
    H(HPWRA) Likely to be invasive in Hawaii and on other Pacific Islands as determined by the HP- WRA screening process., which is based on published sources describing species biology and behavior in Hawaii and/or other parts of the world.
    H(Hawai'i) Documented to cause significant ecological or economic harm in Hawaii, as determined from published information on the species' current impacts in Hawaii. [more details]
    EVALUATE The species has been assessed using the HP-WRA system; however, no assessment of risk can be provided at this time because 1)important information is missing from the assessment or 2)the species possesses a combination of traits and characteristics that make its likely behavior difficult to assess using the WRA system. 

To download the full assessment for any species, click on the species name.

Completed assessments sorted by Genus

Family Preferred_species_name Common name WRA score WRA designation
Caprifoliaceae Abelia x grandiflora glossy Abelia -13 L
Fabaceae Acacia auriculiformis Darwin Black Wattle 13 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Acacia confusa Formosan koa 10 H (Hawai‘i)
Fabaceae Acacia crassicarpa northern wattle 7 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Acacia farnesiana sweet acacia 14 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Acacia holosericea candelabra wattle 4 EVALUATE
Fabaceae Acacia longifolia Sidney goldern wattle 10 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Acacia mangium mangium 8 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Acacia mearnsii Australian acacia 15 H (Hawai‘i)
Fabaceae Acacia melanoxylon Australian blackwood 12 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Acacia nilotica gum arabic tree 14 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Acacia parramattensis Parrmatta green wattle 9 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Acacia stenophylla shoestring acacia 2 L
Euphorbiaceae Acalypha godseffiana Acalypha -7 L
Euphorbiaceae Acalypha hispida chenille plant 2 L
Euphorbiaceae Acalypha wilkesiana beefsteak plant -2 L
Aceraceae Acer rubrum red maple 8 H (HPWRA)
Asteraceae Achillea millefolium common yarrow 19 H (HPWRA)
Asteraceae Acmella grandiflora Acmella 0 L
Arecaceae Acoelorraphe wrightii everglades palm 2 EVALUATE
Bombacaceae Adansonia digitata baobab tree -6 L
Fabaceae Adenanthera pavonina peacock tree 7 H (HPWRA)
Apocynaceae Adenium obesum desert rose -8 L
Bromeliaceae Aechmea blanchetiana orange blanchetiana 0 L
Bromeliaceae Aechmea fasciata urn plant 2 L
Fabaceae Aeschynomene americana American joint vetch 12 H (HPWRA)
Hippocastanaceae Aesculus californica California buckeye 0 L
Podocarpaceae Afrocarpus falcatus bastard yellow wood 0 L
Liliaceae Agapanthus africanus lily of the Nile 2.5 L
Liliaceae Agapanthus praecox common Agapanthus 12 H (HPWRA)
Araucariaceae Agathis robusta Queensland kauri -5 L
Meliaceae Aglaia odorata Chinese perfume plant -4 L
Araceae Aglaonema commutatum Aglaonema 1 L
Araceae Aglaonema nitidum Aglaonema 0 L
Poaceae Agrostis stolonifera carpet bentgrass 19 H (HPWRA)
Simaroubaceae Ailanthus altissima tree of heaven 21 H (HPWRA)
Lamiaceae Ajuga reptans common bugleweed 11 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Albizia chinensis Chinese albizia 8 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Albizia guachapele chime tree -4 L
Fabaceae Albizia lebbeck woman's-tongue tree 7 H (HPWRA)
Euphorbiaceae Aleurites moluccana kukui 12 H (HPWRA)
Apocynaceae Allamanda blanchetii purple allamanda 6 Evaluate
Apocynaceae Allamanda cathartica golden trumpet Allamanda 8 H (HPWRA)
Liliaceae Allium sativum garlic -4 L
Casuarinaceae Allocasuarina verticillata drooping she oak -5 L
Didiereaceae Alluaudia procera Madagascar ocotillo -7 L
Betulaceae Alnus nepalensis Nepalese alder -2 L
Araceae Alocasia cucullata dwarf elephant ear 9 H (HPWRA)
Araceae Alocasia sanderiana Kris plant -2 L
Rhamnaceae Alphitonia zizyphoides toi 0 L
Zingiberaceae Alpinia purpurata red ginger 4 EVALUATE
Zingiberaceae Alpinia zerumbet shell ginger 10 H (HPWRA)
Apocynaceae Alstonia macrophylla deviltree 9 H (HPWRA)
Malvaceae Alyogyne huegelii lilac hibiscus 0 L
Asteraceae Ambrosia psilostachya western ragweed 15 H (HPWRA)
Anacardiaceae Anacardium occidentale cashew tree 0 L
Fabaceae Andira inermis cabbage tree -3 L
Poaceae Andropogon glomeratus bushy bluestem 14 H (HPWRA)
Marattiaceae Angiopteris evecta giant fern 8 H (HPWRA) [revised 07/03/08]
Annonaceae Annona cherimola cherimoya -4 L
Annonaceae Annona muricata soursop -3 L
Annonaceae Annona squamosa sugar apple -2 L
Poaceae Anthoxanthum odoratum sweet vernalgrass 11 H (HPWRA)
Araceae Anthurium hoLeri birds nest Anthurium -6 L
Polygonaceae Antigonon leptopus Mexican creeper 19 H (HPWRA)
Acanthaceae Aphelandra aurantiaca fiery spike -2 L
Aizoaceae Aptenia cordifolia hearts and flowers 5 L
Fabaceae Arachis glabrata perennial peanut -1 L
Fabaceae Arachis pintoi perenial peanut -1 L
Araucariaceae Araucaria columnaris CoLs pine -5 L
Araucariaceae Araucaria heterophylla Norfolk Island pine -5 L
Arecaceae Archontophoenix alexandrae Alexandra palm 8 H (HPWRA) [revised 1/22/08]
Arecaceae Archontophoenix cunninghamiana king palm 6 EVALUATE [revised 1/22/08]
Arecaceae Archontophoenix tuckeri peach creek palm 4 EVALUATE
Myrsinaceae Ardisia crenata coral ardisia 10 H (HPWRA) [revised 07/03/08]
Myrsinaceae Ardisia elliptica shoebutton ardisia 11 H (Hawai'i)
Palmae Areca catechu betel nut palm -4 L
Convolvulaceae Argyreia nervosa Hawaiian baby woodrose 1 L
Aristolochiaceae Aristolochia ringens gaping dutchman's pipe 4 EVALUATE
Annonaceae Artabotrys hexapetalus climbing ylang-ylang -1 L
Moraceae Artocarpus altilis breadfruit -12 L
Moraceae Artocarpus heterophyllus jackfruit 1 L
Moraceae Artocarpus odoratissimus marang -3 L
Poaceae Arundo donax Arundo 12 H (HPWRA)
Asclepiadaceae Asclepias physocarpa milkweed 8 H (HPWRA)
Liliaceae Asparagus densiflorus asparagus fern 15 H (HPWRA)
Liliaceae Asparagus falcatus sicklethorn 11 H (HPWRA)
Liliaceae Asparagus setaceus common asparagus fern 13 H (HPWRA)
Liliaceae Aspidistra elatior cast iron plant -1 L
Acanthaceae Asystasia gangetica Chinese violet 12 H (HPWRA)
Rubiaceae Atractocarpus fitzalanii Randia 3 H (HPWRA)
Oxalidaceae Averrhoa carambola starfruit -1 L
Poaceae Axonopus compressus broadleaf carpet grass 15 H (HPWRA)
Poaceae Axonopus fissifolius. carpet grass 16 H (HPWRA)
Meliaceae Azadirachta indica neem 10 H (HPWRA) [updated 2July 2009]
Arecaceae Balaka longirostris Mbalaka 0 L
Poaceae Bambusa chungii Emporer's blue bamboo -1 L
Poaceae Bambusa glaucophylla Malay dwarf bamboo -3 L
Poaceae Bambusa lako Timor Black Bamboo -1 L (HPWRA)
Poaceae Bambusa oldhamii Oldham's bamboo 1 EVALUATE
Poaceae Bambusa textilis weaver's bamboo -3 L
Poaceae Bambusa vulgaris common bamboo 5 L
Lecythidaceae Barringtonia asiatica sea putat -8 L
Basellaceae Basella alba Malabar spinach 8 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Bauhinia binata unknown -1 L
Fabaceae Bauhinia hookeri white Bauhinia -4 L
Fabaceae Bauhinia monandra pink orchid tree 7 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Bauhinia purpurea purple bauhinia 7 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Bauhinia tomentosa yellow tree bauhinia -1 L
Fabaceae Bauhinia variegata mountain ebony 9 L (Hawai‘i)
Fabaceae Bauhinia x blakeana Hong Kong orchid tree -7 L
Apocynaceae Beaumontia grandiflora Easter-lily-vine -6 L
Apocynaceae Beaumontia multiflora herald's trumpet -4 L
Arecaceae Beccariophoenix madagascariensis window palm -7 L
Rhamnaceae Berchemia zeyheri pink ivory -3 L
Asteraceae Bidens alba beggar's-tick 12 H (HPWRA)
Asteraceae Bidens pilosa Spanish needle 23 H (HPWRA)
Bishofiaceae Bischofia javanica bishopwood 7 H (HPWRA)
Arecaceae Bismarckia nobilis Bismarck palm -7 L
Bixaceae Bixa orellana lipsticktree 1 L
Zingiberaceae Boesenbergia rotunda Chinese-keys 0 L
Fabaceae Bolusanthus speciosus wisteria tree -6 L
Poaceae Bothriochloa bladhii Caucasian bluestem 19 H (HPWRA)
Nyctaginaceae Bougainvillea glabra paperflower -1 L
Poaceae Bouteloua aristidoides needle grama 9 H
Poaceae Brachiaria mutica para grass 12 H (Hawai‘i)
Sterculiaceae Brachychiton acerifolius Illawarra flame tree -5 L
Arecaceae Brahea armata blue hesper palm 3 L
Brassicaceae Brassica napus turnip 16 H (HPWRA)
Grossulariaceae Brexia madagascariensis Brexia -6 L
Euphorbiaceae Breynia disticha snow bush -5 L
Moraceae Broussonetia papyrifera (Hawaiian seedless) paper mulberry 3 L
Solanaceae Brugmansia x candida angel's trumpet 2 L
Solanaceae Brunfelsia densifolia serpentine hill raintree -4 L
Crassulaceae Bryophyllum tubiflorum chandelier plant 9 H (HPWRA)
Poaceae Buchloe dactyloides Amer buffalo grass 4.5 L
Combretaceae Bucida buceras black olive -3 L
Combretaceae Bucida molinetii spiny black olive -3 L
Buddlejaceae Buddleja asiatica Asian butterfly bush 9 H (HPWRA)
Buddlejaceae Buddleja davidii orange eye butterflybush 13 H (HPWRA)
Buddlejaceae Buddleja madagascariensis smokebush 7 H (Hawai‘i)
Malpighiaceae Bunchosia argentea peanut butter fruit -3 L
Fabaceae Caesalpinia bonduc nickerbean 12 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Caesalpinia decapetala cat's claw 20 H (Hawai‘i)
Fabaceae Caesalpinia ferrea Brazilian ironwood -3 L
Fabaceae Caesalpinia major yellow nicker 10 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Caesalpinia pulcherrima dwarf poinciana 5 L
Fabaceae Cajanus cajan pigeon pea 0 L
Marantaceae Calathea majestica -1 L
Fabaceae Calliandra calothyrsus calliandra 1 L
Fabaceae Calliandra haematocephala red powderpuff 2 L
Fabaceae Calliandra surinamensis pink powderpuff -4 L
Verbenaceae Callicarpa japonica Japanese beautyberry 5 EVALUATE
Myrtaceae Callistemon citrinus crimson bottlebush 0 L
Myrtaceae Callistemon rigidus stiff bottlebrush 1 L
Myrtaceae Callistemon viminalis weeping bottlebrush 3 L
Clusiaceae Calophyllum inophyllum kamani 6 EVALUATE
Fabaceae Calopogonium mucunoides calapo 6 L
Asclepiadaceae Calotropis gigantea crownplant 15 H (HPWRA)
Asclepiadaceae Calotropis procera small crownflower 15 H (HPWRA)
Theaceae Camellia sinensis tea -4 L
Annonaceae Cananga odorata perfume tree 3 L
Cannaceae Canna indica African arrowroot 17 H (HPWRA)
Cannabaceae Cannabis sativa marijuana 8.5 H (HPWRA)
Solanaceae Capsicum frutescens wild pepper 5 L
Rhizophoraceae Carallia brachiata Corkwood 3 EVALUATE
Sapindaceae Cardiospermum grandiflorum showy balloonvine 18 H (HPWRA)
Sapindaceae Cardiospermum halicacabum baloon vine 12 H (HPWRA)
Cyperaceae Carex muskingumensis Muskingum sedge 8 H (HPWRA)
Caricaceae Carica papaya papaya 2 L
Apocynaceae Carissa grandiflora Natal plum -1 L
Boraginaceae Carmona retusa Fukien tea 4 EVALUATE
Arecaceae Carpentaria acuminata Carpentaria palm -5 L
Aizoaceae Carpobrotus edulis ice plant 9.5 H (HPWRA)
Arecaceae Caryota mitis fishtail palm 1 EVALUATE
Fabaceae Cassia bakeriana pink shower tree -2 L
Fabaceae Cassia fistula golden shower tree 3 L
Fabaceae Cassia grandis pink shower tree -5 L
Fabaceae Cassia javanica pink shower tree -1 L
Fabaceae Cassia xnealiae rainbow shower tree -8 L
Casuarinaceae Casuarina cunninghamiana cunninghamia beefwood 12 H (HPWRA)
Casuarinaceae Casuarina equisetifolia iron wood 21 H (HPWRA) [revised 07/03/08]
Casuarinaceae Casuarina glauca gray sheoak 20 H (HPWRA)
Bignoniaceae Catalpa longissima Jamaica oak 2 L
Apocynaceae Catharanthus roseus Madagascar periwinkle 2 L
Cecropiaceae Cecropia obtusifolia trumpet-tree 10 H (HPWRA)
Cecropiaceae Cecropia peltata trumpet tree 9 H (HPWRA)
Meliaceae Cedrela odorata Spanish cedar 2 EVALUATE
Bombacaceae Ceiba pentandra kapok tree 2 L
Asteraceae Centaurea melitensis yellow star thistle 18 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Centrosema pubescens centro 11 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Ceratonia siliqua carob tree 0 L
Apocynaceae Cerbera manghas pink-eyed Cerbera 1 L
Solanaceae Cestrum elegans crimson cestrum 18 H (HPWRA)
Solanaceae Cestrum nocturnum night-blooming jasmine 17 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Chamaecrista nictitans partridge pea 0 L
Euphorbiaceae Chamaesyce albomarginata rattle snake weed 3 L
Asteraceae Chamelaucium uncinatum Geraldton wax -2.5 L
Poaceae Chasmanthium latifolium northern sea oats 8.5 H (HPWRA)
Chenopodiaceae Chenopodium carinatum Tasmanian goosefoot 9 H (HPWRA)
Liliaceae Chlorophytum comosum spiderplant 8 L (Hawai‘i)
Bombacaceae Chorisia speciosa floss-silk tree -7 L
Asteraceae Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium pyrethrum 3 Evaluate
Sapotaceae Chrysophyllum oliviforme satin leaf 7 H (HPWRA)
Poaceae Chrysopogon zizanioides (fertile) vetiver grass wild type 9 H (HPWRA)
Poaceae Chrysopogon zizanioides 'Sunshine' vetiver grass "sunshine" -8 L
Rubiaceae Cinchona pubescens red cinchona 9 H (Hawai‘i)
Lauraceae Cinnamomum aromaticum chinese cinnamon -3 L
Lauraceae Cinnamomum camphora camphor tree 14 H (HPWRA)
Lauraceae Cinnamomum verum cinnamon tree 10 H (HPWRA)
Asteraceae Cirsium vulgare bull thistle 18.5 H (HPWRA)
Vitaceae Cissus discolor rex begonia vine 1 EVALUATE
Vitaceae Cissus nodosa Javanese treebine 8 H (HPWRA)
Vitaceae Cissus repens cissus 7 H (HPWRA)
Vitaceae Cissus rotundifolia Venezuelan treebine 9 H (HPWRA)
Verbenaceae Citharexylum spinosum fiddlewood 7 H (HPWRA)
Rutaceae Citrus aurantifolia lime 2 L
Rutaceae Citrus limon lemon -3 L
Rutaceae Citrus maxima pummelo 0 L
Rutaceae Citrus reticulata Mandarin orange -5 L
Rutaceae Citrus sinensis sweet orange -2 L
Rutaceae Citrus x paradisi grapefruit -8 L
Rutaceae Citrus×Citrofortunella mitis calamondin 0 L
Cactaceae Cleistocactus baumannii firecracker cactus -4 L
Verbenaceae Clerodendrum buchananii red clerodendrum 7 H (HPWRA)
Verbenaceae Clerodendrum glabrum Natal glorybower -1 L
Verbenaceae Clerodendrum macrostegium velvetleaf glorybower 8 H (HPWRA)
Verbenaceae Clerodendrum paniculatum pagoda flower 5 EVALUATE
Verbenaceae Clerodendrum quadriloculare bronze leaved clerodendrum 11 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Clitoria ternatea butterfly pea 9 H (HPWRA)
Clusiaceae Clusia rosea autograph tree 5 EVALUATE
Cucurbitaceae Coccinia grandis ivy gourd 21 H (Hawai‘i)
Polygonaceae Coccoloba uvifera sea grape -5 L
Arecaceae Coccothrinax barbadensis Puerto Rico silver palm 2 Evaluate
Bixaceae Cochlospermum vitifolium buttercup tree -4 L
Arecaceae Cocos nucifera coconut palm -4 L
Euphorbiaceae Codiaeum variegatum croton -4 L
Rubiaceae Coffea arabica coffee 2 H (HPWRA)
Rubiaceae Coffea liberica Liberian coffee 1 EVALUATE
Arecaceae Colpothrinax wrightii barrel palm -2 L
Fabaceae Colvillea racemosa Colville's glory -8 L
Combretaceae Conocarpus erectus button mangrove 4 L
Fabaceae Copaifera langsdorffii diesel tree 4 EVALUATE
Arecaceae Copernicia prunifera carnauba wax palm 0 L
Rubiaceae Coprosma repens creeping mirrorplant 1 L
Boraginaceae Cordia lutea yellow geiger -6 L
Boraginaceae Cordia sebestena geiger tree -1 L
Boraginaceae Cordia subcordata kou -3 L
Poaceae Cortaderia jubata Andean pampas grass 26 H (HPWRA)
Poaceae Cortaderia selloana pampas grass 24 H (HPWRA)
Myrtaceae Corymbia citriodora lemon-scented gum 9 H (HPWRA)
Myrtaceae Corymbia ficifolia red-flowering gum -7 L
Costaceae Costus dubius costus 8 H (HPWRA)
Costaceae Costus woodsonii Indian-head ginger 11 H (HPWRA)
Rosaceae Cotoneaster pannosus silverleaf cotoneaster 7 H (HPWRA)
Crassulaceae Crassula ovata jade plant -4 L
Capparaceae Crateva religiosa spider tree 0 L
Bignoniaceae Crescentia cujete calabash tree -8 L
Liliaceae Crinum asiaticum Crinum lily -4 L
Fabaceae Crotalaria juncea Indian hemp -3 L
Taxodiaceae Cryptomeria japonica Japanese cedar -3 L
Asclepiadaceae Cryptostegia madagascariensis Madagascar rubber vine 13 H (HPWRA)
Sapindaceae Cupaniopsis anacardioides carrotwood 6 EVALUATE
Lythraceae Cuphea hyssopifolia false heather 5 L
Lythraceae Cuphea ignea Mexican cigar plant 3 L
Lythraceae Cuphea subuligera mauve cuphea 1 L
Cupressaceae Cupressus lusitanica Mexican cypress 6 L
Zingiberaceae Curcuma longa tumeric -8 L
Zingiberaceae Curcuma zedoaria rose turmeric -3 L
Araliaceae Cussonia paniculata Mountain cabbage tree -7 L
Araliaceae Cussonia spicata cabbage tree -5 L
Fabaceae Cyamopsis tetragonoloba cluster bean -11 L
Cyatheaceae Cyathea cooperi Australian tree fern 8 H (Hawai‘i)
Cycadaceae Cycas revoluta king sago -2 L
Poaceae Cymbopogon citratus lemongrass -2 L
Cyperaceae Cyperus involucratus umbrella sedge 17 H (HPWRA)
Arecaceae Cyrtostachys renda sealing wax palm 1 EVALUATE
Fabaceae Dalbergia latifolia East Indian rosewood 5 EVALUATE
Fabaceae Dalbergia retusa Nicaragua rosewood 0 L
Fabaceae Dalbergia sissoo Indian rosewood 13 H (HPWRA)
Agavaceae Dasylirion acrotrichum green desert spoon 0 L
Agavaceae Dasylirion quadrangulatum Mexican grass tree -4 L
Davalliaceae Davallia fejeensis lacy hare’s-foot fern 6 L
Asteraceae Delairea odorata German ivy 14 H (Hawai‘i)
Fabaceae Delonix regia royal poinciana -1 L
Fabaceae Derris elliptica tubaroot 7 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Desmanthus virgatus slender mimosa 12 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Desmodium nicaraguense shrubby desmodium -2 L
Fabaceae Desmodium umbellatum horse bush 5 L
Liliaceae Dianella caerulea cerulean flaxlily 5 EVALUATE
Liliaceae Dianella revoluta spreading flax lily 2 L
Liliaceae Dianella tasmanica Tasman flax lily 0 L
Commelinaceae Dichorisandra thyrsiflora blue ginger 1 L
Fabaceae Dichrostachys cinerea sickle bush 16 H (HPWRA)
Arecaceae Dictyosperma album hurricane palm -3 L
Araceae Dieffenbachia seguine (outdoors) dumbcane 7 H (HPWRA)
Scrophulariaceae Digitalis purpurea foxglove 7.5 H (HPWRA)
Dilleniaceae Dillenia suffruticosa shrubby dillenia 3 EVALUATE
Fabaceae Diphysa americana guachipelín 0 L
Melastomataceae Dissotis rotundifolia dissotis 10 H (HPWRA)
Bignoniaceae Dolichandrone spathacea mangrove trumpet-tree -5 L
Fabaceae Dolichos lablab lablab bean -1 L
Agavaceae Dracaena draco dragon tree -5 L
Agavaceae Dracaena fragrans corn plant 0 L
Agavaceae Dracaena marginata money tree -1 L
Verbenaceae Duranta erecta golden dew drop 13 H (HPWRA)
Arecaceae Dypsis decaryi triangle palm -7 L
Arecaceae Dypsis lutescens areca palm 2 L (Hawai‘i)
Poaceae Echinochloa esculenta Japanese millet 8 H (HPWRA)
Eleagnaceae Elaeagnus umbellata autumn olive 13 H (HPWRA)
Arecaceae Elaeis guineensis African oil palm 10 H (HPWRA)
Elaeocarpaceae Elaeocarpus angustifolius blue marble tree 4 EVALUATE
Elaeocarpaceae Elaeocarpus hainanensis Hainan elaeocarpus 1 Evaluate
Celastraceae Elaeodendron orientale false olive -1 L
Poaceae Eleusine coracana finger millet 2 EVALUATE
Fabaceae Enterolobium cyclocarpum ear tree 3 L
Araceae Epipremnum pinnatum pothos 9 H (HPWRA)
Gesneriaceae Episcia cupreata flame violet 3 L
Gesneriaceae Episcia dianthiflora lace flower vine -2 L
Poaceae Eragrostis elliottii blue lovegrass 12 H (HPWRA)
Acanthaceae Eranthemum pulchellum blue sage 0 L
Turneraceae Erblichia odorata butterfly tree 0 L
Poaceae Eremochloa ophiuroides centipede grass 8 L (Hawai‘i)
Ericaceae Erica lusitanica Spanish heath 20.5 H (HPWRA)
Asteraceae Erigeron karvinskianus Mexican daisy 11 H (Hawai‘i)
Rosaceae Eriobotrya japonica loquat 0.5 EVALUATE
Fabaceae Erythrina abyssinica Erythrina 5 L
Fabaceae Erythrina corallodendron coral bean tree 6 EVALUATE
Fabaceae Erythrina crista-galli cockspur coral tree 6 L
Fabaceae Erythrina sigmoidea none 6 EVALUATE
Fabaceae Erythrina subumbrans December tree 5 EVALUATE
Fabaceae Erythrina variegata coral tree -2 L
Grossulariaceae Escallonia rubra var. macrantha redclaws 4 Evaluate
Zingiberaceae Etlingera elatior torch ginger 1 L (Hawai‘i)
Myrtaceae Eucalyptus caesia silver princess 0 L
Myrtaceae Eucalyptus cinerea silver dollar gum 4 L
Myrtaceae. Eucalyptus cloeziana Queensland messmate -1 L
Myrtaceae Eucalyptus crebra ironbark -1 L
Myrtaceae Eucalyptus deglupta Indonesian gum 2 L
Myrtaceae. Eucalyptus dunnii Dunn's white gum 0 L
Myrtaceae Eucalyptus gardneri blue mallet 0 L
Myrtaceae Eucalyptus globulus blue gum 10 H (HPWRA)
Myrtaceae Eucalyptus grandis rose gum 11 H (HPWRA)
Myrtaceae Eucalyptus intermedia bloodwood 1 L
Myrtaceae Eucalyptus kruseana Kruse's mallee 0 L
Myrtaceae Eucalyptus microcorys Australian tallowwood 1 L
Myrtaceae Eucalyptus paniculata grey ironbark 11 H (HPWRA)
Myrtaceae. Eucalyptus pellita red mahogany 3 L
Myrtaceae Eucalyptus platypus round-leaved moort 0 L
Myrtaceae Eucalyptus robusta swamp mahogany 3 L
Myrtaceae. Eucalyptus saligna sydney blue gum 7 H (HPWRA)
Myrtaceae Eucalyptus salubris gimlet -3 L
Myrtaceae Eucalyptus sideroxylon black ironbark, 2 L
Myrtaceae Eucalyptus stoatei scarlet pear gum -2 L
Myrtaceae Eucalyptus tereticornis forest red gum 5 L
Myrtaceae Eucalyptus torelliana blood-leaf gum 4 EVALUATE
Myrtaceae Eucalyptus torquata coral gum -1 L
Myrtaceae Eucalyptus urophylla Timor mountain gum 4 L
Myrtaceae Eucalyptus yarraensis yarra gum 1 L
Myrtaceae Eugenia uniflora Surinam cherry 12 H (HPWRA)
Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia amygdaloides variety ‘Efanthia’ wood spurge 12 H (HPWRA)
Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia cotinifolia red spurge -2 L
Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia cyathophora fire-on-the-mountain 7 H (HPWRA)
Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia lathyris petroleum plant 9 H (HPWRA)
Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia leucocephala pascuita -2 L
Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia milii crown of thorns 1 L
Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia pulcherrima poinsettia -7 L
Arecaceae Euterpe oleracea assai 5 EVALUATE
Convolvulaceae Evolvulus glomeratus blue daze 0 L
Euphorbiaceae Excoecaria indica mock willow 1 EVALUATE
Polygonaceae Fagopyrum esculentum buckwheat -6 L
Loganiaceae Fagraea berteroana pua keni keni -1 L
Fabaceae Falcataria moluccana albizia 8 H (HPWRA)
Poaceae Festuca arundinacea tall fescue 17.5 H (HPWRA)
Moraceae Ficus benghalensis Indian banyon 3 L
Moraceae Ficus benjamina weeping fig 4 EVALUATE
Moraceae Ficus carica cv. brownturkey common fig 2 L
Moraceae Ficus deltoidea mistletoe fig 0 L
Moraceae Ficus elastica Indian rubberplant -5 L
Moraceae Ficus lyrata fiddleleaf fig -5 L
Moraceae Ficus macrophylla Moreton bay fig 3 EVALUATE
Moraceae Ficus microcarpa Chinese banyon 10 H (HPWRA)
Moraceae Ficus natalensis Natal fig 1 EVALUATE
Moraceae Ficus pumila creeping fig 2 L
Moraceae Ficus religiosa bodhi tree -4 L
Moraceae Ficus rubiginosa Port Jackson fig 7 H (HPWRA)
Moraceae Ficus tikoua waipahu fig -3 L
Sapindaceae Filicium decipiens fern tree 1 EVALUATE
Fabaceae Flemingia macrophylla Flemingia 4 L
Fabaceae Flemingia strobilifera wild hops 3 EVALUATE
Rutaceae Flindersia brayleyana Queensland Maple -3 L
Apiaceae Foeniculum vulgare fennel 19 H (HPWRA)
Rhamnaceae Frangula californica ssp. Californica coffeeberry 5 H (HPWRA)
Oleaceae Fraxinus uhdei tropical ash 11 H (HPWRA) [revised 5/12/08]
Sterculiaceae Fremontodendron californicum flannelbush 3 L
Malphigiaceae Galphimia gracilis slender goldshower -2 L
Rubiaceae Gardenia jasminoides Cape jasmine 0 L
Rubiaceae Gardenia taitensis Tahitian gardenia -4 L
Onagraceae Gaura lindheimeri gaura 6 L
Asteraceae Gazania rigens var. leucolaena trailing gazania 9 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Gliricidia sepium mother of cocoa -3 L
Verbenaceae Gmelina arborea gmelina 2 L
Bignoniaceae Godmania aesculifolia cachillo -3 L
Acanthaceae Graptophyllum pictum caricature-plant -5 L
Proteaceae Grevillea banksii red silk oak 8 H (HPWRA)
Proteaceae Grevillea robusta silk oak 5 EVALUATE (Revised 04/27/04; Field reports from Hawai‘i indicate it may be a serious H; HEPEC documentation in progress)
Tiliaceae Grewia occidentalis lavender star flower -3 L
Fabaceae Griffonia simplicifolia Griffonia 0 L
Zygophyllaceae Guaiacum officinale lignum vitae -6 L
Bromeliaceae Guzmania lindenii Guzmania 7 H (HPWRA)
Casuarinaceae Gymnostoma papuanum Gymnostoma 0 L
Fabaceae Haematoxylum campechianum logwood 8 H (HPWRA)[revised]
Rubiaceae Hamelia patens firebush 7 H (HPWRA)
Bignoniaceae Haplophragma adenophyllum karenwood 0 L (HPWRA)
Sapindaceae Harpullia pendula tulipwood -4 L
Araliaceae Hedera algeriensis Algerian ivy 4 H (HPWRA)
Araliaceae Hedera helix English ivy 10 H (HPWRA)
Zingiberaceae Hedychium coronarium white ginger 14 H (Hawai‘i)
Zingiberaceae Hedychium gardnerianum kahili ginger 16 H (Hawai‘i)
Asteraceae Helianthus annuus sunflower 10.5 H (HPWRA)
Heliconiaceae Heliconia caribaea lobster claw -1 L
Heliconiaceae Heliconia psittacorum parrot's beak 11 H (HPWRA)
Heliconiaceae Heliconia stricta small lobster claw 6 L
Tiliaceae Heliocarpus popayanensis moho 7 H (HPWRA)
Acanthaceae Hemigraphis alternata metallic plant 1 L
Sterculiaceae Heritiera littoralis loLing-glass tree -2 L
Hernandiaceae Hernandia ovigera Jack in the box tree -4 L
Hernandiaceae Hernandia sonora toporite -5 L
Malvaceae Hibiscus calyphyllus lemonyellow rosemallow 1 L
Malvaceae Hibiscus immaculatus Koki'o Ke'oke'o -3 L
Malvaceae Hibiscus insularis Philip Island hibiscus -3 L
Malvaceae Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Chinese hibiscus -2 L
Malvaceae Hibiscus sabdariffa roselle -3 L
Malvaceae Hibiscus schizopetalus coral hibiscus -4 L
Liliaceae Hippeastrum puniceum Barbados lily 2 L
Malpigiaceae Hiptage benghalensis hiptage 8 H (HPWRA)
Verbenaceae Holmskioldia sanguinea Chinese hatplant -1 L
Verbenaceae Holmskioldia tettensis purple Chinese hatplant -5 L
Acanthaceae Hygrophila polysperma East Indian swampweed 20 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Hymenea courbaril west indian locust 0 L
Arecaceae Hyophorbe lagenicaulis bottle palm -3 L
Clusiaceae Hypericum canariense Canary Island St. Johnswort 9 H (HPWRA)
Clusiaceae Hypericum perforatum common St. Johnswort 12 H (HPWRA)
Aquifoliaceae Ilex cassine Dahoon holly 3 EVALUATE
Aquifoliaceae Ilex dimorphophylla Okinawan holly 2 L
Aquifoliaceae Ilex paraguariensis yerba mate 8 H (HPWRA)
Balsaminaceae Impatiens balsamina balsam impatens 5 EVALUATE
Balsaminaceae Impatiens wallerana busy Lizzy 6 L
Poaceae Imperata cylindrica cogon grass 22 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Indigofera suffruticosa wild indigo 11 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Indigofera teysmannii neel 0 L
Fabaceae Inga edulis ice cream bean 2 EVALUATE
Fabaceae Inocarpus fagifer Polynesian chestnut -3 L
Fabaceae Intsia bijuga kwila -6 L
Convolvulaceae Ipomoea horsfalliae Kuhio vine 1 L
Convolvulaceae Ipomoea quamoclit Cypress vine 14 H (HPWRA)
Amaranthaceae Iresine herbstii blood leaf 0 L
Rubiaceae Ixora chinensis Chinese ixora -2 L
Rubiaceae Ixora coccinea jungle flame 4 EVALUATE
Bignoniaceae Jacaranda mimosifolia Jacaranda 1 L
Oleaceae Jasminum fluminense Brazilian jasmine 16 H (HPWRA)
Oleaceae Jasminum mesnyi primrose jasmine 2.5 L
Oleaceae Jasminum multiflorum star jasmine 2 L
Oleaceae Jasminum polyanthum winter jasmine 10 H (HPWRA)
Euphorbiaceae Jatropha curcas physicnut 17 H (HPWRA)
Euphorbiaceae Jatropha gossypiifolia belly-ache bush 18 H (HPWRA)
Euphorbiaceae Jatropha integerrima peregrina 0 L
Euphorbiaceae Jatropha podagrica gout stalk 2 L
Cupressaceae Juniperus chinensis Chinese juniper -3 L
Acanthaceae Justicia brandegeeana shrimp plant -1 L
Zingiberaceae Kaempferia galanga galanga 1 L
Crassulaceae Kalanchoe beharensis velvet leaf 4 EVALUATE
Crassulaceae Kalanchoe tomentosa panda plant 4 L
Meliaceae Khaya nyasica East African mahogany -1 L
Meliaceae Khaya senegalensis dry zone mahogany 0 L
Bignoniaceae Kigelia africana sausage tree 0 L
Sapindaceae Koelreuteria elegans Chinese flame tree 8 H (HPWRA) [revised]
Apocynaceae Kopsia fruticosa shrub Vinca -6 L
Apocynaceae Kopsia singapurensis Singapore Kopsia -4 L
Arecaceae Laccospadix australasica Atherton palm 1 EVALUATE
Cucurbitaceae Lagenaria siceraria bottle gourd 0 L
Lythraceae Lagerstroemia indica crape myrtle 6 L
Lythraceae Lagerstroemia indica L. X L. fauriei crepe myrtle hybrid 4 L
Lythraceae Lagerstroemia speciosa queen's crape myrtle -4 L
Lythraceae Lagerstroemia tomentosa leza wood -2 L
Poaceae Lagurus ovatus hare's tail grass 7 H (HPWRA)
Verbenaceae Lantana camara lantana wildtype 21 H (Hawai‘i)
Verbenaceae Lantana montevidensis trailing lantana 16 H (HPWRA)
Arecaceae Latania loddigesii blue Latan palm -8 L
Malvaceae Lavatera maritima tree mallow -6 L
Leeaceae Leea guineensis Hawaiian holly -1 L
Lamiaceae Leonotis nepetifolia annual lion's ear 19 H (HPWRA)
Brassicaceae Lepidium africanum African pepperwort 10 H (HPWRA)
Brassicaceae Lepidium virginicum Virginia pepperweed 17 H (HPWRA)
Myrtaceae Leptospermum scoparium broom teatree 3 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Lespedeza cuneata Chinese lespedeza 17 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Leucaena leucocephala leucaena 15 H (HPWRA)
Scrophulariaceae Leucophyllum frutescens Texas ranger -3 L
Proteaceae Leucospermum bolusii Gordon's Bay pincushion -4 L
Oleaceae Ligustrum japonicum Japanese privet 6 EVALUATE
Oleaceae Ligustrum lucidum Glossy privet 6 EVALUATE
Oleaceae Ligustrum sinense Chinese privet 11 H (HPWRA)
Linaceae Linum usitatissimum flax 9.5 H (HPWRA)
Liliaceae Liriope muscari lilyturf 4.5 L
Liliaceae Liriope spicata creeping lilyturf 7.5 H (HPWRA)
Sapindaceae Litchi chinensis lychee -6 L
Arecaceae Livistona chinensis Chinese fan palm 5 EVALUATE
Arecaceae Livistona rotundifolia footstool palm -1 L
Poaceae Lolium multiflorum annual ryegrass 9 H (HPWRA)
Dasypogonaceae Lomandra longifolia 'tanika' fine leaf lomandra 1 L
Caprifoliaceae Lonicera japonica Japanese honeysuckle 12 H (HPWRA)
Caprifoliaceae Lonicera xheckrottii goldflame honeysuckle -5 L
Scrophulariaceae Lophospermum erubescens creeping gloxinia 5 L
Scrophulariaceae Lophospermum scandens twining snapdragon -2 L
Myrtaceae Lophostemon confertus Brisbane box -3 L
Fabaceae Lotus berthelotti parrot's beak -1 L
Fabaceae Lupinus albifrons silver lupine 5.5 Evaluate
Juncaceae Luzula nivea snowy wood rush 4 L
Juncaceae Luzula sylvactica greater woodrush 7 H (HPWRA)
Solanaceae Lycium chinense Chinese desert-thorn 8 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Lysiloma watsonii lysiloma -5 L
Primulaceae Lysimachia fortunei variety super snow Lysimachia 8 H (HPWRA)
Proteaceae Macadamia integrifolia macadamia -1 L
Euphorbiaceae Macaranga mappa bingabing 11 H (Hawai'i)
Bignoniaceae Macfadyena unguis-cati cat's claw vine 17 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Macroptilium atropurpureum siratro 7 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Macroptilium bracteatum burgundy bean -1 L
Fabaceae Macrotyloma axillare perennial horsegram 10 H (HPWRA)
Rhamnaceae Maesopsis eminii umbrella tree 4 EVALUATE
Magnoliaceae Magnolia grandiflora southern magnolia 0 L
Sapindaceae Majidea zanguebarica black pearl tree -2 L
Malpighiaceae Malpighia glabra wild crapemyrtle -5 L (HPWRA)
Malvaceae Malvaviscus penduliflorus Turk's cap -9 L
Apocynaceae Mandevilla × amabilis pink allamanda hybrid -11 L
Anacardiaceae. Mangifera indica mango 1 L
Euphorbiaceae Manihot esculenta cassava 3 L
Bignoniaceae Mansoa alliaceum garlic vine 0 L
Bignoniaceae Mansoa hymenaea membranous garlic vine 0 L
Malphigiaceae Mascagnia macroptera yellow butterfly vine 6 EVALUATE
Scrophulariaceae Mecardonia procumbens 'Goldflake' baby jump-up 7 H (HPWRA)
Melastomataceae Medinilla cummingii chandelier tree 6 EVALUATE
Melastomatceae Medinilla heterophylla 9 H (HPWRA)
Melastomataceae Medinilla magnifica Malaysian orchid 8 H (HPWRA) [revised 5/12/08]
Melastomataceae Medinilla scortechinii Medinilla 5 EVALUATE
Acanthaceae Megaskepasma erythrochlamys red cloak -2 L
Myrtaceae Melaleuca bracteata river tea-tree 10 H (HPWRA)
Myrtaceae Melaleuca incana var. prostrata prostrate gray honey myrtle 0 L
Myrtaceae Melaleuca leucadendra broadleaved paperback -1 L (HPWRA)
Myrtaceae Melaleuca nesophila mauve honey-myrtle 8 H (HPWRA)
Myrtaceae Melaleuca quinquenervia paper bark tree 15 H (HPWRA)
Myrtaceae Melaleuca styphelioides prickly-leaf teatree -2 L (HPWRA)
Melastomataceae Melastoma candidum Indian rhododendron 13 H (Hawai‘i)
Meliaceae Melia azedarach Chinaberry tree 14 H (HPWRA)
Poaceae Melica transsilvanica red spire 7 H (HPWRA)
Poaceae Melinis nerviglumis pink crystals 7 H (HPWRA)
Convolvulaceae Merremia tuberosa wood rose 12 H (HPWRA)
Myrtaceae Metrosideros excelsa New Zealand christmas tree 5 EVALUATE
Myrtaceae Metrosideros kermadecensis Kermadec pohutukawa 3 EVALUATE
Arecaceae Metroxylon amicarum Caroline ivory nut palm 0 L
Magnoliaceae Michelia champaca orange champaca -5 L
Magnoliaceae Michelia figo banana shrub -5 L
Magnoliaceae Michelia x alba white champaca -6 L
Melastomataceae Miconia calvescens Miconia 14 H (Hawai‘i)
Polypodiaceae Microsorum musifolium crocodile fern 5 L
Fabaceae Mimosa diplotricha giant sensitive plant 24 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Mimosa pigra catclaw mimosa 25 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Mimosa tenuiflora jurema 7 H (HPWRA)
Sapotaceae Mimusops caffra coastal red milkwood -1 L
Poaceae Miscanthus floridulus giant miscanthus 13 H (HPWRA)
Araceae Monstera deliciosa swiss-cheese plant 1 L
Asteraceae Montanoa hibiscifolia treedaisy 13 H (HPWRA)
Malvaceae Montezuma speciosissima maga -1 L
Myricaceae Morella faya firetree 8 H (Hawai‘i)
Rubiaceae Morinda citrifolia noni 10 H (HPWRA)
Moringaceae Moringa oleifera horse-raddish tree 1 L
Fabaceae Mucuna pruriens cowitch 7 H (HPWRA)
Tiliaceae Muntingia calabura Jamaica cherry 12 H (HPWRA)
Rutaceae Murraya paniculata mock orange 6 EVALUATE
Musaceae Musa acuminata Cavendish banana -11 L
Musaceae Musa balbisiana Japanese fiber banana -2 L
Rubiaceae Mussaenda erythrophylla red mussaenda 0 L
Rubiaceae Mussaenda frondosa flag bush -4 L
Rubiaceae Mussaenda philippica white mussaenda -3 L
Myoporaceae Myoporum laetum Ngaio 6 EVALUATE
Myrtaceae Myrcianthes fragrans Simpson stopper 0 L
Myrtaceae Myrciaria cauliflora jaboticaba -2 L
Poaceae Nassella tenuissima Mexican feather grass 24 H (HPWRA)
Poaceae Nastus elatus New Guinea Edible Bamboo 2 L
Fabaceae Neonotonia wightii perennial soybean 7 H (HPWRA)
Apocynaceae Nerium oleander oleander 6 L (Hawai‘i)
Solanaceae Nicotiana glauca tree tobacco 15 H (HPWRA)
Agavaceae Nolina recurvata ponytail palm -4 L
Oleaceae Noronhia emarginata Madagascar olive 5 EVALUATE
Ochnaceae Ochna serrulata Mickey Mouse plant 11 H (HPWRA)
Ochnaceae Ochna thomasiana Mickey-mouse bush 8 H (HPWRA)
Acanthaceae Odontonema cuspidatum firespike 7 H (HPWRA)[revised]
Oleaceae Olea europaea olive tree 5 EVALUATE
Liliaceae Ophiopogon japonicus mondo grass 3 L
Asteraceae Osteospermum fruticosum trailing African daisy 3 L
Scrophulariaceae Otacanthus caeruleus Brazilian snapdragon -4 L
Poaceae Otatea aztecorum Mexican weeping bamboo 4 L
Verbenaceae Oxera pulchella royal vine -1 L
Bombacaceae Pachira aquatica Malabar chestnut -6 L
Acanthaceae Pachystachys lutea yellow shrimp plant -4 L
Rubiaceae Paederia foetida maile pilau 21 H (Hawai‘i)
Pandanaceae Pandanus pygmaeus small screwpine 0 L
Poaceae Panicum maximum Guinea grass 17 H (Hawai‘i)
Poaceae Panicum virgatum switchgrass 11 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Parkia speciosa petai -3 L
Fabaceae Parkinsonia aculeata Jerusalum thorn 20 H (HPWRA)
Poaceae Paspalum conjugatum Hilograss 28 H (Hawai‘i)
Poaceae Paspalum dilatatum Dallis grass 12 H (HPWRA)
Poaceae Paspalum notatum bahia grass 16 H (HPWRA)
Poaceae Paspalum vaginatum seashore paspalum 7 H (HPWRA)
Passifloraceae Passiflora edulis passion fruit 6 L
Passifloraceae Passiflora quadrangularis giant granadilla 11 H (HPWRA)
Passifloraceae Passiflora rubra red passionfruit 9 H (HPWRA)
Passifloraceae Passiflora tarminiana banana poka 24 H (Hawai`i)
Passifloraceae Passiflora vitifolia crimson passion flower -1 L
Scrophulariaceae Paulownia elongata Paulownia -1 L
Scrophulariaceae Paulownia fortunei empress diamond 1 L
Scrophulariaceae Paulownia tomentosa princess tree 9 H (HPWRA)
Geraniaceae Pelargonium peltatum ivyleaf geranium 0 L
Fabaceae Peltophorum pterocarpum yellow flame -4 L
Poaceae Pennisetum clandestinum kikuyu grass 18 H (HPWRA)
Poaceae Pennisetum glaucum variety 'purple majesty' ornamental pearl millet 3 L
Poaceae Pennisetum petiolare petioled fountaingrass 7 H (HPWRA)
Poaceae Pennisetum purpureum elephant grass 16 H (HPWRA)
Poaceae Pennisetum setaceum fountain grass 26 H (Hawai‘i)
Poaceae Pennisetum villosum feathertop 24 H (HPWRA)
Apocynaceae Pentalinon luteum wild allamanda 9 H (HPWRA)
Piperaceae Peperomia obtusifolia baby rubberplant -4 L
Cactaceae Pereskia aculeata Barbados gooseberry 13 H (HPWRA)
Cactaceae Pereskia grandifolia rose cactus 0 L
Cactaceae Pereskia lychnidiflora arbol del matrimonio -1 L
Lauraceae Persea americana avocado 3 L
Polygonaceae Persicaria chinensis Chinese knotweed 14 H (HPWRA)
Verbenaceae Petrea volubilis sandpaper vine -1 L
Apiaceae Petroselinum crispum parsley -1 L
Araceae Philodendron scandens heart-leaf philodendron -3 L
Arecaceae Phoenix dactylifera date palm 10 H (HPWRA)
Arecaceae Phoenix roebelenii pygmy date palm -5 L
Agavaceae Phormium tenax New Zealand flax 8 H (Hawai‘i)
Rosaceae Photinia davidiana photina -2 L
Verbenaceae Phyla nodiflora matchweed 5 H (HPWRA)
Euphorbiaceae Phyllanthus acidus gooseberry-tree 4 L
Phytolaccaeae Phytolacca dioica ombu 9 H (HPWRA)
Urticaceae Pilea cadierei aluminum plant -5 L
Urticaceae Pilea microphylla rockweed 6 EVALUATE
Urticaceae Pilea nummulariifolia creeping Charlie 0 L
Myrtaceae Pimenta dioica allspice tree 7 H (HPWRA)
Myrtaceae Pimenta racemosa bay rum tree 4 EVALUATE
Pinaceae Pinus elliottii slash pine 2 EVALUATE
Pinaceae Pinus radiata Monterey pine 5 EVALUATE (Revised 04/27/04; Field reports from Hawai‘i indicate it may be a serious pest; HEPEC documentation in progress)
Piperaceae Piper aduncum spiked pepper 18 H (HPWRA)
Piperaceae Piper methysticum kava -4 L
Fabaceae Pithecellobium dulce Madras thorn 14 H (HPWRA)
Pittosporaceae Pittosporum resiniferum petroleum nut 6 EVALUATE
Pittosporaceae Pittosporum tobira Japanese pittosporum 3.5 EVALUATE
Pittosporaceae Pittosporum undulatum Australian cheesewood 7 H (HPWRA)
Pittosporaceae Pittosporum viridiflorum Cape cheesewood 3 EVALUATE
Cupressaceae Platycladus orientalis oriental arborvitae -6 L
Lamiaceae Plectranthus prostratus pillow plant 5 L
Marantaceae Pleiostachya pruinosa prayer plant 2 L
Plumbaginaceae Plumbago auriculata cape leadwort 6 L
Apocynaceae Plumeria obtusa evergreen frangipani -6 L
Apocynaceae Plumeria rubra frangipani -5 L
Poaceae Poa pratensis Kentucky bluegrass 14 H (HPWRA)
Podocarpaceae Podocarpus chinensis maki -4 L
Podocarpaceae Podocarpus elatus plum pine -2 L
Podocarpaceae Podocarpus gracilior African fern pine 0 L
Podocarpaceae Podocarpus macrophyllus Japanese yew -3 L
Bignoniaceae Podranea ricasoliana pink trumpet vine 3 EVALUATE
Annonaceae Polyalthia longifolia var pendula mast tree -4 L
Polygonaceae Polygonum capitatum pink knotweed 13 H (HPWRA)
Poaceae Polypogon monspeliensis rabbitfoot grass 18 H (HPWRA)
Araliaceae Polyscias filicifolia geranium aralia 0 L
Araliaceae Polyscias fruticosa Ming Aralia -1 L
Araliaceae Polyscias guilfoylei panax 0 L
Fabaceae Pongamia pinnata Indian beech 9 H (HPWRA)
Convolvulaceae Poranopsis paniculata bridal bouquet -5 L
Rubiaceae Posoqueria latifolia monkey apple -2 L
Rosaceae Potentilla verna spring cinquefoil -2 L
Palmae Pritchardia pacifica Fiji fan palm -4 L
Arecaceae Pritchardia thurstonii Thurstons Fan Palm -4 L
Fabaceae Prosopis juliflora thorny kiawe 19 H (HPWRA)
Rosaceae Prunus cerasifera cherry plum 8 H (HPWRA)
Rosaceae Prunus grisea amongyang 2 EVALUATE
Acanthaceae Pseuderanthemum graciliflorum blue crossandra 1 L
Bombacaceae Pseudobombax ellipticum shavingbrush tree -2 L
Asteraceae Pseudogynoxys chenopodioides Mexican flame vine 7 H (HPWRA)
Rubiaceae Pseudomussaenda flava dwarf yellow Mussaenda -6 L
Myrtaceae Psidium cattleianum strawberry guava 18 H (Hawai‘i)
Myrtaceae Psidium guajava common guava 21 H (Hawai‘i)
Myrtaceae Psidium guineense Brazilian guava 7 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Pterocarpus dalbergioides Andaman redwood -3 L
Fabaceae Pterocarpus indicus Burmese rosewood 4 L (Hawai‘i)
Arecaceae Ptychosperma elegans Alexander palm 2 EVALUATE
Arecaceae Ptychosperma macarthurii Macarthur palm 1 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Pueraria montana var. lobata kudzu vine 24 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Pueraria phaseoloides tropical kudzu 17 H (HPWRA)
Punicaceae Punica granatum pomegranate 3.5 L
Rosaceae Pyracantha angustifolia narrowleaf firethorn 13 H (HPWRA)
Bignoniaceae Pyrostegia venusta flame vine 7 H (HPWRA)
Polypodiaceae Pyrrosia piloselloides dragons scale fern 6 H (HPWRA)
Apocynaceae Rauvolfia vomitoria poison devil's pepper 11 H (HPWRA)
Strelitziaceae Ravenala madagascariensis traveller's palm 5 L (Hawai‘i)
Rosaceae Rhaphiolepis indica Indian hawthorn 3 L
Palmae Rhaphis excelsa lady palm 0 L
Ericaceae Rhododendron indicum evergreen azalea 4 L (Hawai‘i)
Myrtaceae Rhodomyrtus tomentosa rose myrtle 8 H (Hawai‘i)
Euphorbiaceae Ricinus communis castorbean 21 H (HPWRA)
Rubiaceae Rondeletia amoena Rondeletia -2 L
Rubiaceae Rondeletia odorata Rondeletia -4 L
Rosaceae Rosa laevigata Cherokee rose 16 H (HPWRA)
Rosaceae Rosa multiflora multiflora rose 12 H (HPWRA)
Arecaceae Roystonea oleracea cabbage palm -3 L
Arecaceae Roystonea regia Florida royal palm 0 L
Rosaceae Rubus argutus prickly Florida blackberry 21.5 H (Hawai‘i)
Rosaceae Rubus discolor Himalayan blackberry 24 H (HPWRA)
Rosaceae Rubus ellipticus yellow Himalayan raspberry 18 H (HPWRA)
Rosaceae Rubus rosifolius thimbleberry 10 H (HPWRA)
Acanthaceae Ruellia caroliniensis Carolina wild petunia 1 L
Scrophulariaceae Russelia equisetiformis fire cracker plant -2 L
Acanthaceae Ruttya fruticosa rabbit ears 1 EVALUATE
Arecaceae Sabal mauritiiformis savannah palm -2 L
Poaceae Saccharum officinarum sugar cane -2 L
Poaceae Saccharum spontaneum wild sugarcane 17 H (HPWRA)
Chenopodiaceae Salicornia virginica Virginia pickleweed 4 L
Salicaceae Salix babylonica Babylon weeping willow 9 H (HPWRA)
Chenopodiaceae Salsola kali Tumbleweed 18.5 H (HPWRA)
Salviniaceae Salvinia molesta giant salvinia 29 H (Hawai‘i)
Fabaceae Samanea saman monkeypod tree 4 L
Caprifoliaceae Sambucus mexicana Mexican elderberry 9 H (HPWRA)
Acanthaceae Sanchezia speciosa Sanchezia 3 L
Agavaceae Sansevieria trifasciata mother-in-law's tongue 9 H (HPWRA)
Santalaceae Santalum album Indian sandalwood -3 L
Fabaceae Saraca indica AshLa tree -7 L
Bignoniaceae Saritaea magnifica glowvine 1 Evaluate
Saxifragaceae Saxifraga sarmentosa strawberry saxifrage 3 L
Araliaceae Schefflera actinophylla octopus tree 13 H (Hawai‘i)
Araliaceae Schefflera arboricola dwarf umbrella-tree 3 EVALUATE
Araliaceae Schefflera elegantissima false aralia 0 L
Araliaceae Schefflera taiwaniana umbrella plant 1 EVALUATE
Anacardiaceae Schinus molle Peruvian pepper tree 10 H (HPWRA)
Anacardiaceae Schinus terebinthifolius Christmas berry 19 H (Hawai‘i)
Poaceae Schizachyrium condensatum bush beardgrass 8 H (HPWRA)
Poaceae Schizostachyum brachycladum sacred Bali bamboo -1 L
Poaceae Schizostachyum glaucifolium Hawaiian bamboo 0 L
Fabaceae Schotia brachypetala elephant hedge bean tree 0 L
Asteraceae Senecio cineraria dusty miller 2 L
Asteraceae Senecio madagascariensis fireweed 23 H (Hawai‘i)
Asteraceae Senecio mandraliscae blue finger -3 L
Fabaceae Senna alata candle bush 10 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Senna bicapsularis Christmasbush 8 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Senna siamea Siamese cassia 5 L
Fabaceae Senna spectabilis spectacular Cassia 11 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Senna surattensis kolomona 0 EVALUATE (Revised 04/27/04; Field reports from Hawai‘i indicate it may be a serious pest; HEPEC documentation in progress)
Cupressaceae Sequoia sempervirens California redwood -4 L
Fabaceae Serianthes kanehirae ukall -5 L
Rubiaceae Serissa japonica serissa -10 L
Fabaceae Sesbania grandiflora agati 2 L
Fabaceae Sesbania punicea rattlebox 9.5 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Sesbania sesban Egyptian riverhemp 11 H (HPWRA)
Asteraceae Silybum marianum milk thistle 17.5 H (HPWRA)
Simmondsiaceae Simmondsia chinensis Jojoba -3 L
Solanaceae Solandra maxima cup of gold 3 EVALUATE
Solanaceae Solanum capsicoides Cockroach berry 15 H (HPWRA)
Solanaceae Solanum muricatum melon pear 5 L
Solanaceae Solanum seaforthianum Brazilian nightshade 9 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Sophora tomentosa yellow necklacepod -3 L
Poaceae Sorghum bicolor ssp. Drummondii shattercane 17.5 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Spartium junceum Spanish broom 12 H (HPWRA)
Araceae Spathiphyllum cannifolium spathe flower -4 L
Araceae Spathiphyllum wallisii peace lily -4 L
Bignoniaceae Spathodea campanulata African tulip tree 14 H (HPWRA)
Asteraceae Sphagneticola trilobata wedelia 13 H (HPWRA)
Sphagnaceae Sphagnum palustre peat moss 12.5 H (HPWRA)
Anacardiaceae Spondias dulcis wi apple -5 L
Apocynaceae Stemmadenia litoralis lecheso -5 L
Proteaceae Stenocarpus sinuatus wheel-of-fire -4 L (HPWRA)
Poaceae Stenotaphrum secundatum St. Augustine grass 15 H (HPWRA)
Sterculiaceae Sterculia apetala Panama tree 4 Evaluate
Sterculiaceae Sterculia foetida Java olive 3 L
Malpigiaceae Stigmaphyllon floribundum woolly Amazonvine -6 L
Strelitziaceae Strelitzia nicolai bird-of-paradise-tree -1 L
Strelitziaceae Strelitzia reginae bird of paradise -3 L
Solanaceae Streptosolen jamesonii marmalade bush 2 L
Marantaceae Stromanthe macrochlamys Stromanthe 0 L
Marantaceae Stromanthe tonckat stromanthe 1 L
Fabaceae Strongylodon macrobotrys jade vine -9 L
Apocynaceae Strophanthus amboensis elephant vine 2 EVALUATE
Apocynaceae Strophanthus preussii climbing oleander 0 L
Fabaceae Stylosanthes guianensis stylo 11 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Stylosanthes scabra shrubby stylo 1 L
Meliaceae Swietenia macrophylla large-leaf mahogany -2 L
Meliaceae Swietenia mahagoni West Indian mahogany -6 L
Arecaceae Syagrus romanzoffiana queen palm -2 L
Araceae Syngonium auritum five-fingers 1 L
Araceae Syngonium podophyllum arrowhead plant 15 H (HPWRA)
Myrtaceae Syzygium malaccense mountain apple 0 L
Myrtaceae Syzygium polyanthum Indian bayleaf 7 H (HPWRA)
Bignoniaceae Tabebuia aurea silver trumpet tree 3 L
Bignoniaceae Tabebuia berteroi Hispaniolan rosy trumpet tree -4 L
Bignoniaceae Tabebuia donnell-smithii gold tree -4 L
Bignoniaceae Tabebuia heterophylla pink trumpet-tree 1 L
Bignoniaceae Tabebuia impetiginosa mauve tabebuia -2 L
Bignoniaceae Tabebuia ochracea golden trumpet tree -3 L
Bignoniaceae Tabebuia rosea rosie trumpet tree 3 EVALUATE
Apocynaceae Tabernaemontana elegans warty toad tree -1 L
Taccaceae Tacca leontopetaloides Polynesian arrowroot 0 L
Asteraceae Tagetes minuta Aztec marigold 20 H (HPWRA)
Malvaceae Talipariti elatum blue mahoe 5 L
Fabaceae Tamarindus indica tamarind -3 L
Tamaricaceae Tamarix aphylla Athel tamarisk 13 H (HPWRA)
Tamaricaceae Tamarix gallica saltcedar 8.5 H (HPWRA)
Bignoniaceae Tecoma alata cahuato -3 L
Bignoniaceae Tecoma capensis Cape honeysuckle 6 L (Hawai‘i)
Bignoniaceae Tecoma stans yellow bells 8 H (HPWRA)
Verbenaceae Tectona grandis teak -5 L
Fabaceae Tephrosia candida white tephrosia 8 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Tephrosia purpurea pila 7 H (HPWRA)
Combretaceae Terminalia catappa tropical almond 4 L
Combretaceae Terminalia myriocarpa East Indian almond -2 L
Vitaceae Tetrastigma pubinerve Tetrastigma 8 H (HPWRA)
Vitaceae Tetrastigma voinierianum lizard plant 8 H (HPWRA)
Melastomataceae Tetrazygia bicolor Florida clover ash 3 EVALUATE
Sterculiaceae Theobroma cacao cocoa -5 L
Malvaceae Thespesia populnea milo 9 H (HPWRA)
Apocynaceae Thevetia peruviana be-still tree 9 H (HPWRA)
Apocynaceae Thevetia thevetioides giant Thevetia 1 L
Arecaceae Thrinax parviflora thatch palm -6 L
Bignoniaceae Thunbergia erecta bush thunbergia -2 L
Acanthaceae Thunbergia grandiflora blue trumpet vine 11 H (HPWRA)
Acanthaceae Thunbergia laurifolia blue trumpet vine 11 H (HPWRA)
Acanthaceae Thunbergia mysorensis mysore clock vine -6 L
Lamiaceae Thymus vulgaris thyme 4 L
Melastomataceae Tibouchina granulosa purple glory bush 1 L
Melastomataceae Tibouchina herbacea cane tibouchina 24 H (HPWRA)
Melastomataceae Tibouchina multiflora today-tomorrow tibouchina -4 L
Melastomataceae Tibouchina urvilleana glory bush 10 H (HPWRA)
Bromeliaceae Tillandsia cyanea pink quill -5 L
Bromeliaceae Tillandsia usneoides Spanish moss 9 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Tipuana tipu tipu tree 0 L
Meliaceae Toona ciliata Australian red cedar 2 EVALUATE
Melastomataceae Topobea parasitica Topobea 3 H (HPWRA)
Boraginaceae Tournefortia argentea tree heliotrope -1 L
Apocynaceae Trachelospermum jasminoides confederate jasmine -3 L
Commelinaceae Tradescantia spathacea boat-lily 11 H (HPWRA)
Euphorbiaceae Triadica sebifera Chinese Tallow 14 H (HPWRA)
Malpigiaceae Tristellateia australasiae Galphimia vine -3 L
Turneraceae Turnera ulmifolia yellow alder 10 H (HPWRA)
Typhaceae Typha latifolia common cattail 26 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Ulex europaeus gorse 20 H (Hawai‘i)
Ulmaceae Ulmus pumila Siberian elm 9 H (HPWRA)
Arecaceae Veitchia joannis Joannis palm -1 L
Arecaceae Veitchia merrillii Manila palm -2 L
Arecaceae Veitchia montgomeryana Montgomery palm -1 L
Arecaceae Veitchia winin Winin palm -4 L
Asteraceae Verbesina encelioides golden crown-beard 19 H (HPWRA)
Fabaceae Wallaceodendron celebicum banuyo 0 L (HPWRA)
Arecaceae Washingtonia filifera California fan palm 11.5 H (HPWRA)
Arecaceae Washingtonia robusta Mexican fan palm 15 H (HPWRA)
Arecaceae Wodyetia bifurcata foxtail palm 0 L
Asteraceae Wollastonia biflora Wedelia 0 L
Araceae Xanthosoma robustum elephant ear 3 EVALUATE
Agavaceae Yucca guatemalensis bluestem yucca 6 L
Zamiaceae Zamia furfuracea cardboard plant -2 L
Araceae Zantedeschia aethiopica Calla lily 15 H (HPWRA)
Zingiberaceae Zingiber zerumbet shampoo ginger -1 L
Rhamnaceae Zizyphus mauritiana Indian jujube 9.5 H (HPWRA)
Poaceae Zoysia japonica Korean lawngrass 6 L
Poaceae Zoysia tenuifolia templegrass -2 L

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