|Tagetes minuta L.|
This noxious, rapidly growing herb forms a dense ground cover at higher elevations. The seeds cling to hair and are dispersed by domesticated and feral animals. It is killed by fire, but new colonies are formed rapidly from the seed bank. Marigold has not been evaluated for biological control.
The plant is confined to dry and mesic areas on Mauna Kea between 1,700-3,000 m.