|Rubus ellipticus Sm.|
This prickly, semi-deciduous shrub invades native forests principally in pig-disturbed areas. The plants spread into neighboring forest from underground shoots. The seeds are dispersed by alien, and perhaps native, frugivorous birds. The species regenerates rapidly from underground shoots after fire. It has not been evaluated for biological control except collectively with other Rubus species (Gardner and Davis 1982).
It is found in wet habitats between 700-1,700 m, and there is a major infestation at Volcano, Hawai'i.