|Rhizophora mangle L.|
|red mangrove, American
This evergreen tree grows up to 25 m tall in coastal marshes and streams. The monotypic stands form a very dense cover, excluding all other species. On O'ahu and Moloka'i, these infestations have significantly altered almost all brackish water ecosystems as well as many fishponds. The seedlings are dispersed by water. Red mangrove forests are generally destroyed by fire, but the species has not been evaluated for biological control. The species is readily controlled manually by chopping it down below the top taproot.
It is confined to brackish waters around all major islands.