Ardisia elliptica Thunb.
[Ardisia humilis sensu Mez]
shoebutton ardisia

This shade-tolerant, evergreen tree grows rapidly, forming dense monotypic stands that prevent establishment of all other species. Alien frugivorous birds are the principal dispersal agents though there are reports of the native thrush feeding on it. The red-vented bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer) is attracted to the numerous red to blackish fruits. It will be interesting to note the impact of this recently established frugivorous bird on the distribution and infestation levels of shoebutton ardisia on O'ahu. The tree is probably not resistant to fire. The potential for biological control has not yet been evaluated.

The species is confined to wet, lowland areas. The principal infestations are Waikane-Waiahole, O'ahu and Hana, Maui.

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