|Angiopteris evecta (Forst.) Hoffm.|
|mule's foot, Madagascar
The leaves of this fern can form a canopy up to 5 m tall shading out most other plants in the area. It is not resistant to fire but grows in wet areas that only burn under extreme drought conditions. There has been no evaluation of the potential for biological control.
There are major infestations of this species in Manoa Valley, Oahu, and along the north slope of Haleakala, Maui.