The Scrophulariaceae are mostly herbs or sometimes small shrubs comprising about 190 genera and 4,000 predominately temperate species, including many which are partial root parasites (see Castilleja below and Pedicularis) and a few that are without chlorophyll and are wholly parasitic. The leaves are alternate, opposite, or sometimes whorled, and are simple to pinnately dissected; stipules are absent. The flowers are bisexual and zygomorphic, and sometimes have brightly colored and conspicuous associated bracts. The calyx is commonly deeply 4-5 lobed or cleft. The corolla is sympetalous, usually 4-5-lobed, sometimes 2-lipped, and sometimes forms a nectary spur or sac. The androecium consists of 2 or 5 stamens or more commonly of 4 didynamous stamens adnate to the corolla tube or perigynous zone, alternate with the lobes. The gynoecium consists of a single compound pistil of 2 carpels, a single style, and a superior, sometimes asymmetric ovary with 2 sometimes unequal locules, each containing numerous axile ovules. There is usually a unilateral or annular, frequently lobed nectary disk at the base of the ovary. The fruit type is usually a capsule.

Each "thumbnail" image below is linked to a larger photograph.

Angelonia salicariaefolia. Glandular ornamental herb from tropical America. Note the strongly zygomorphic, 2-lipped corollas.
ant_majs.jpg (9360 bytes) Antirrhinum majus, snapdragon, a common ornamental species.
Bacopa diffusus, Corvallis OR, July, 2003.
Collinsia sp.
Digitalis purpurea, foxglove. This is the species that provides the important heart stimulant, digitalin.
Gratiola sp., Finley National Wildlife Refuge, OR, Jul 2004.
Kickxia elatine, sharpoint fluellin, Avery Park, OR, Jul 2004.
Linaria dalmatica, Dalmation toadflax, vic. Cheney, WA.
lin_vuls.jpg (9846 bytes) Linaria vulgaris, yellow toadflax, butter and eggs.  Note the very long spur.  Vic. Cheney, WA
Lindernia sp.
Mimulus biflorus, bush monkeyflower.
Mimulus alsinoides, baby monkey-flower, vic. Umpqua, OR, April, 2004.
Mimulus douglasii. Oregon, 2003.
Mimulus sp., monkeyflower. These flowers with their strongly zygomorphic and 2-lipped corollas are typical of most species in the family.
Otacanthus caeruleus. Note the strongly zygomorphic, 2-lipped corollas.
Penstemon acuminatus, c. 7 mi W of Pasco, WA, 2002.
Penstemon cf. cinicola, Diamond Lake, OR, July, 2003.
Penstemon sp.
Russelia equisetiformis, coral plant, fountain bush, firecracker plant.
Scrophularia lanceolata, Mt. Spokane, WA, July, 2003.
Synthryis renformis, spring or snow queen, OR, 2003.
Torenia sp., ornamental annual species from Indochina
Verbascum thapsus, mullein. The less advanced members of the family have weak floral zygomorphy and 5 functional stamens such as seen here.
Veronica cusickii, speedwell. The flowers with a deeply 4-lobed corolla and only 2 stamens seen here represent a striking deviation from the more usual floral construction found in the family.
Veronica sp.
Castilleja miniata, common paintbrush. Enlarged and sometimes brightly colored bracts seen here and in some other members of the family can sometimes make the flowers pale by comparison. In this case the calyx is also brightly colored but the corolla is mostly greenish. This is an example of one of the partial root parasites (hemiparasites) in the subfamily Rhinanthoideae (see also Pedicularis).
ort_atts.jpg (12080 bytes)
Castilleja attenuata, valley tassels.  One of the annual members of the genus.
Orthocarpus imbricatus, mountain owl clover, representing an annual hemiparasitic genus.
Parentucellia viscosa.  1- vic. Corvallis, OR, 2002.  Hemiparasite.
Rhinanthus major.  Hemiparasite, Aussois, France.

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