The Verbenaceae are herbs, lianas, shrubs, or trees comprising about 36 genera and 1,035 species that are further characterized by the common occurrence of quadrangular twigs and/or aromatic herbage. The leaves are nearly always opposite or whorled, mostly simple; stipules are lacking. The flowers are nearly always bisexual and zygomorphic, forming racemes, spikes, or heads. The calyx is synsepalous and most commonly 5-merous. The corolla is sympetalous, usually unequally 5-lobed, and often weakly 2-lipped. The androecium most commonly consists of 4 didynamous stamens adnate to the corolla tube or perigynous zone, alternate with the lobes. The gynoecium consists of a single compound pistil of nearly always 2 carpels and an unlobed or shallowly lobed ovary, usually with 4 locules (by false septation), each with a single axile ovule. The style is terminal and uncleft, bearing a conspicuous, usually bilobed stigma. A weakly developed annular nectary disk occurs around the base of the ovary in many species. The fruit is usually a drupe with 2 or 4 pits or a schizocarp splitting into 2 or 4 nutlets.
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|Citharexylum spinosum, fiddlewood. Tree from the West Indies with light wood good for little except firewood.|
|Duranta repens, golden dew drop. The flowers in this species are only weakly zygomorphic. Opposite leaves are apparent.|
||Lantana camara. The flowers of this species are only moderately zygomorphic. The herbage is strongly aromatic.|
||Petrea volubilis, sandpaper vine. The common name refers to the scratchy texture of the leaves. The petaloid lavender calyx persists after the darker purple corolla falls away.|
||Stachytarpheta urticifolia, Kaneohe, HI, December, 2004.|
||Verbena bonariensis, purpletop verbena, Brazilian verbena, OSU campus, Corvallis, OR, July 2003.|
|Verbena gooddingii, Goodding's verbena, scented or fragrant verbena, vic. Saguaro Natl. Park, AZ, Mar. 2004.|
||Verbena litoralis, seashore vervain.|
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