Lamiaceae (Labiatae)

The Lamiaceae are herbs shrubs, or trees comprising about 258 genera and 6,970 species, commonly with aromatic, herbage, quadrangular stems, and verticillate inflorescences. The leaves are usually opposite or whorled, and are simple or occasionally pinnately compound; stipules are absent. The flowers are bisexual and zygomorphic, cymosely clustered on the secondary inflorescence axes. The calyx is synsepalous, typically 5-merous, sometimes 2-lipped, and usually has 5-15 conspicuous ribs. The corolla is sympetalous and typically bilabiate with 2 lobes forming an upper lip and 3 lobes forming a lower lip. The androecium consists of either 4 didynamous stamens or only two stamens that are adnate to the corolla tube or perigynous zone, alternate with the lobes. The gynoecium consists of a single compound ovary of 2 carpels, an unlobed to deeply 4-lobed superior ovary with 4 apparent locules (by intrusion of the ovary wall), each with a single basal-axile ovule. The style is terminal to gynobasic; stigmas 2, tiny and inconspicuous, at the apices of the style branches.  A hypogynous, often asymmetric nectariferous disk is generally present between the stamens and ovary. The fruit is a drupe with 1-4 pits, a 4-seeded indehiscent pod or a schizocarp splitting into four 1-seeded nutlets that rarely may be fleshy and drupaceous.

Each "thumbnail" image below is linked to a larger photograph.

Gmelina philippensis
Haplostachys haplostachya, honohono, endemic Hawaiian genus.
Hyptis pectinata, comb bushmint.
Leonotis nepetifolia, cat's ear. Note the opposite leaves, square stem and verticillate-capitate flower clusters.
Lepechinia hastata, pakaha. This Hawaiian plant has quadrangular stems, opposite leaves and zygomorphic flowers. Notice the ribbed calyx, bifid style, and didynamous stamens.
Mentha arvensis, wild mint, vic. Cheney, WA, Aug., 1986.
Mentha javanica, mint. Opposite leaves and whorls or verticils of flowers may be seen in this species.
Mentha spicata, spearmint.
Orthosiphon aristatus, cat's whiskers.  Ornamental shrub from India to Australia; leaves used to treat diabetes in China.
Perovskia atriplicifolia, Russian sage, OSU campus, Corvallis, OR, July, 2003.
Phlomis russeliana, sticky Jerusalem sage, OSU Campus, Corvallis, OR, Jul 2004.
Phyllostegia glabra, ulihi. This species in one of three endemic Hawaiian mint genera has features expected for the family, although the nutlets visible on the left are a bit fleshier than normal.
Phyllostegia grandiflora, kapana, Mt. Ka'ala, O'ahu, endemic.
Plectrathus parviflorus, spurflower, 'ala'ala wai nui, 'ala'ala wai nui pua ki, 'ala'ala wai nui wahine, indigenous to Hawaii.
Plectranthus scutellarioides, coleus. The verticillate, zygomorphic, 2-lipped flowers and the quadrangular stem are good family characteristics. Two of the 4 nutlets that characterize the gynoecium are visible between the calyx lobes in the early fruiting stage seen just to the left of the open flower.
Prunella vulgaris, self-heal, Jackson-Frazier Wetlands, Corvallis, OR, Jul 2004.
Rosmarinus officinalis, rosemary.
Salvia coccinea, scarlet sage.  Iao Valley, W Maui, HI, April, 1976.
Salvia pratensis, sage. The flowers are in whorls or verticils. Notice the strongly 2-lipped or bilabiate corollas and calyces. In the lowermost flower the 2 stamens and 2 stigma lobes are clearly visible (upper photo). Glandular hairs on the herbage secrete volatile, aromatic oils. Note the quadrangular stem and the 4 developing nutlets of the exposed gynoecium (lower photo).
Stachys cooleyae, giant hedge-nettle, vic. Newport, OR, 2002.
Stenogyne kaalae. Opposite leaves, quadrangular stems, bilabiate corolla, and synsepalous calyx are all seen in this endemic Hawaiian genus.
Clerodendrum magnificum
Clerodendrum myricoides, blue glorybower. Notice the strongly zygomorphic flower with didynamous stamens and a filamentous style with two stigma lobes. (Formerly Verbenaceae)
Clerodendrum quadriloculare. The flowers of this species have a very long corolla tube. (Formerly Verbenaceae)
Clerodendrum thomsonae, bleeding heart.  An ornamental shrub from tropical West Africa cultivated for its attractive flowers. (Formerly Verbenaceae)
Clerodendrum sp., OSU campus, Corvallis, OR, July, 2003. (Formerly Verbenaceae)
Holmskioldia sanguinea, cup and saucer. The rotate calyx constitutes the saucer referred to in the common name while the corolla comprises the cup. Notice the two-lipped and strongly zygomorphic nature of the corolla. (Formerly Verbenaceae)
Tectona grandis, Verbenaceae, teak. Timber tree from India to Java. The wood is valued for heavy construction as well as fine furniture. Powdered wood is also used medicinally; young leaves and root bark yield a yellowish-brown dye. UH Manoa Campus, Honolulu, HI, 2005.
Vitex rotundifolia, beach vitex. This Hawaiian native species exhibits zygomorphic flowers, didynamous stamens, bilobed stigma and terminal style. (Formerly Verbenaceae)

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