ssp. africana (Mill.) P. Green
[Linociera intermedia Wight]
This shrubby, evergreen tree forms dense, monotypic thickets between 500-1500 m elevation. It may have allelopathic activity. The seeds are dispersed by alien frugivorous birds. Its adaptation to fire is unknown, and it has not been evaluated for biological control.
The major infestations are at Waimea, Hawai'i and 'Ainahou, Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park.