Photo mosaic of Pacific coral reef scenes
Pacific Islands Coral Reef Program
Reports and Publications - National Park of American Samoa
Publications relevant to the National Park of American Samoa coral reefs and their marine environment include:

Atlas
Nat'l Park

of Am Samoa

Corals
Nat'l Park

of Am Samoa
Fishes
Nat'l Park

of Am Samoa
Plants
Nat'l Park

of Am Samoa
Barshis, D. J., J. H. Stillman, R. D. Gates, R. J. Toonen, L. W. Smith and C. Birkeland. 2008. Coral Resistance to Environmental Extremes: a Case for Host Adaptation. Science (submitted for publication)  
   
Birkeland, C. 1981. Acanthaster in the cultures of high islands. Atoll Research Bulletin 255:55-58. 
   
Birkeland, C. 1982. Terrestrial runoff as a cause of outbreaks of Acanthaster planci (Echinodermata: Asteroidea). Marine Biology 69:175-185.  
   
Birkeland, C. 1994. Coral and reef-fish assessment of FBNMS. Rpt to NOAA. 126 pp. 
   
Birkeland, C. 1996. Changes in the coral reef community of FBNMS and Tutuila Island (AS) over the last two decades. Rpt to NOAA and USDOC. 225 pp.  
   
Birkeland, C. 1999. Resurvey of the Aua transect prior to the ship removal. Rpt to NOAA. 10 pp.  
   
Birkeland, C. (in prep.) Coral and Fish Surveys in Fagatele Bay, Am. Samoa, 2001. Fagatele Bay Natl Mar Sanctuary 
   
Birkeland, C. 2005. Summary Database of Coral Transects in American Samoa. Unpublished manuscript. 
   
Birkeland, C. 2007a. Manu'a islands/Rose Atoll, AS - coral species list. Rpt to NPSA. 2 pp.  
   
Birkeland, C. 2007b. Tutuila/Aunu'u, AS - Coral species list. Rpt to NPSA. 2 pp.  
   
Birkeland, C. and R. H. Randall. 1979. Report on the Acanthaster planci (Alamea) studies on Tutuila, AS. DMWR Biological Rpt Series 2. 53 pp.  
  

Birkeland, C., et al. 1979, 1982, and 1985. Transect Databases. Unpublished Excel files in Birkeland 2005.

  
   
Birkeland, C., C. H. Randall, R. C. Wass, B. Smith and S. Wilkens. 1987. Biological resource assessment of FBNMS. DMWR Biological Rpt Series 13. NOAA Tech Memo NOS MEMD 3. 232 pp.  
   
Birkeland, C., et al. 1998. A resurvey of the marine resources FBNMS, AS. Rpt to NOAA and DOC. 225 pp..   
   
Birkeland, C. and S. A. Belliveau. 2000. Resurvey of the Aua transect after the ship removal. Rpt to NOAA and DOC. 4 pp.  
   
Birkeland, C., R. H. Randall, A. L. Green, B. D. Smith and S. Wilkens. 2003. Changes in the coral reef communities of FBNMS and Tutuila Island (AS), 1982-1995. FBNMS Science Series 2003-1. 226 pp.  
   
Birkeland, C., A. Green, C. Mundy and K. Miller. 2004. Long term monitoring of FBNMS and Tutuila (AS) 1985 to 2001: summary of surveys conducted in 1998 to 2001. Rpt to NOAA and DOC. 158 pp. 
   
Birkeland, C., P. Craig, F. Fenner, L. Smith, W. E. Kiene and B. Riegl. 2008. Geologic setting and ecological functioning of coral reefs in AS. Chap 20. 33 pp. In: Riegl B, et al. (eds). Coral reefs of the USA. Springer Publishers. 803 pp. 
   
Coles, S. L., P.R. Reath, P.A. Skelton, V. Bonito, R.C. DeFelice and
L. Basch. 2003. Introduced Marine Species in Pago Pago Harbor, Fagatele Bay, and the National Park Coast, American Samoa. Final report for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Fagatele Bay Marine Sanctuary, National Park of American Samoa and American Samoa Department of Marine and Natural Resources. Bishop Museum Pacific Biological Survey. Bishop Museum Techn. Rpt. No. 26. Honolulu, HI.
  
   
Cook, Robert. 1999. Survey of Laufuti Stream, Ta'u Init, National Park of American Samoa. Report by National Park of American Samoa. 


Cook, Robert. 2001. A Survey of Laufuti Stream, Ta'u Island, National Park of American Samoa. National Park Service Technical Report NPS/NRWRD/NRTR-2001/290.

 

 
   
CRAG. 2000. American Samoa's state of the reefs. ASG. 23 pp. 
   
CRAG. 2002. AS marine protected areas planning workshop proceedings. CRAG. 38 pp. 
   
CRAG. 2003a. AS Coral Reef Advisory Group recent accomplishments. CRAG. 6 pp. 
   
CRAG. 2003b. Coral Reef Advisory Group three-year plan 2003-2006. CRAG. 3 pp. 
   
CRAG. 2003c. Summary sheet: global warming and climate change in AS. CRAG. 1 p.  
   
CRAG. 2007. Potential climage change impacts to AS. CRAG. 8 pp. 
   
Craig, P. 1993. Tuna landings in AS, 1987-1992. DMWR Biological Rpt Series 21a. 11 pp.  
   
Craig, P. 1994 Workshop to identify important fish issues in AS. DMWR Biological Rpt Series 57. 19 pp. 
   
Craig, Peter. 1995a. Are Tropical Nearshore Fisheries Manageable In View of Projected Population Increases? Workshop on Management of South Pacific Inshore Fisheries, New Caledonia, 26 June-July 7, 1995. Joint Forum Fisheries Agency--South Pacific Comm. Biol. Paper 1. 6pp. 
   
Craig, P. 1995b. Temperature data sets for nearshore and offshore waters of AS. DMWR Biological Rpt Series 77. 15 pp. 
   
Craig, P. 1995c. Tough decisions about population policy. DMWR. 4 pp. 
   
Craig, P. 1996. Intertidal territoriality and time-budget of the surgeonfish, Acanthurus lineatus, in AS. DMWR Biological Rpt Series 65. Environmental Biology of Fishes 46:27-36. 
   
Craig, Peter. 1998. Temporal spawning patterns for several
surgeonfishes and wrasses in A.Samoa. Pac. Sci. 52:35-39.


  
Craig, Peter. 1999. The von Bertalanffy growth curve: when a good fit is not good enough. Naga 22:28-29. 
   
Craig, P. 2001a. Developing a coral reef monitoring program for the national park of AS: a practical management-driven approach for small marine protected areas. NPS. 17 pp. 
   
Craig, Peter, 2001b. Status of Coral Reefs in 2000: American Samoa. In Status and Trends of U.S.Coral Reefs 2000. NOAA.  
   
Craig, Peter, 2001c. Managing NPSA Coral Reefs in the Face of
Global Warming
. NPS NRPP-Research Funding Proposal. Western Region, National Park Service.
 
  
Craig, P. 2002a. Rapidly approaching extinction: sea turtles in the central So Pacific. pp 1-3. In: Kinan I (ed). Proc WPac Sea Turtle Coop Research and Mgmt, Honolulu, HI. 
   
Craig, Peter. 2002b. Slow-moving waves of polyp retraction traverse Porites lobata mounds. Coral Reefs 21:373-374. 
   
Craig, P. 2002c. Status of coral reefs in AS. 9 pp. In: Turgeon D, et al. Status and trends US coral reefs. NOAA. 265 pp. 
   
Craig, P. 2003. Fiji's strategic role as a turtle foraging area in the central So Pacific region. SPREP 6th Reg Marine Turtle Conservation Programme, Apia, WS. 3 pp. 
   
Craig, Peter. 2004. Opinion piece: Where are the fish? The Island Connection, Issue 9, pg 4.  
  
Craig, Peter. 2005. Opinion piece: The Impaired Coral Reefs of NPSA. The Island Connection, Issue 10, pg 4.  
  
Craig, Peter. 2006. American Samoa: Environmental Trends.
Meeting handout, 2006, Pago Pago.
 
   
Craig, Peter. 2008. American Samoa: Environmental Trends.
Meeting handout, 2008, Pago Pago.
 
   
Craig, P., Ed., 2009. Natural History Guide to American Samoa.
Report by the National Park of American Samoa, American Samoa Dept of Marine and Wildlife Resources, and the American Samoa Community College. 131 pp.
 
   
Craig, P., et al. 1993a. The commercial, subsistence, and recreational fisheries of AS. DMWR Biological Rpt Series 44. Marine Fisheries Review 55(2):109-116. 
  
Craig, P., B. Ponwith, F. Aitaoto and D. Hamm. 1993b. The
Commercial, Subsistence and Recreational Fisheries of American Samoa. Marine Fisheries Review 55:109-116.
 
   
Craig, P., et al. 1995. Coral reef troubles in AS. DMWR Biological Rpt Series 66. SPC Fisheries Newsletter 72:33-34. 
   
Craig, Peter, J. Choat, L. Axe, and S. Saucerman. 1997. Population Biology and Harvest of a Coral Reef Surgeonfish (Acanthurus lineatus) in American Samoa. Fishery Bulletin 95:680-693. 
   
Craig, P., et al. 1999a. Workshop report and development of 5-year plan for coral reef management in AS (2000-2004). CRAG. 28 pp. 
  

Craig, P., N. Daschbach, S. Wiegman, F. Curren, and J. Aicher. 1999b. Workshop Report and Development of 5-year Plan for Coral Reef Management in American Samoa (2000-2004). A Samoa Coral Reef Advisory Group. 28 pp.

 
   
Craig, P., et al. 2000a. Impacts of rapid population growth in AS: A call for action. Rpt to ASG. 31 pp. 
  
Craig, P., and 14 co-authors. 2000b. Impacts of Rapid Population Growth in American Samoa. 30 pp. 
  
Craig, Peter, Suesan Saucerman and Sheila Wiegman. 2000c. Central South Pacific Ocean (American Samoa), Chapt. 103. In Sheppard (ed.) Seas at the Millennium: an environmental evaluation. Elsevier Science, NY. 2(103):765-772  
   
Craig, P., C. Birkeland, and S. Belliveau. 2001a. High Temperatures Tolerated by a Diverse Assemblage of Shallow-water Corals in American Samoa. Coral Reefs (2001) 20:185-189. 
  
Craig, Peter and Larry Basch. 2001b. Developing a Coral Reef
Monitoring Program for the National Park of American Samoa
. 17 pp. Unpublished report from the National Park Service Vital Signs Workshop, Honolulu.
 
  
Craig, P., D. Parker, R. Brainard, M. Rice, and G. Balazs. 2004. Migrations of green turtles in the central South Pacific. 6 pp. Biological Conservation 116 (2004) 433-438. 
   
Craig, P. and A. Green. 2005. Overfished Coral Reefs in American
Samoa. Reef Encounter (in press).
 
   
Craig, P., G. DiDonato, D. Fenner and P. Brown. 2005. The state of coral reef ecosystems of AS. pp 312-337. In: Waddell J (ed). The status of the coral reef ecosystems of the US and Pacific freely associated states. NOAA Tech Rpt NOS NCCOS 11. 522 pp. 
   
Craig, P., E. Brown and P. Brown. 2006. Marine Fish: A Protocol
Study Plan for a PACN Vital Sign.
NPS Pac. Is. Network I & M Program.
  
   
Craig, P., A. Green and F. Tuilagi. 2008. Subsistence Harvest of Coral Reef Resources in the Outer Islands of American Samoa: Modern, Historic and Prehistoric Catches. Fisheries Research 89(2008)230-240. 
   
DiDonato, Eva. 2005. Coral Images. Coral pictures with list of corals. National Park of American Samoa files. 
  

DiDonato, Eva, Charles Birkeland and Douglas Fenner. 2006. A Preliminary List of Coral Species of the National Park of American Samoa. Tech. Report #155, Coop. National Park Resources Study Unit, Dept. of Botany, Univ. of Hawai`i , Honolulu, Hawai`i.

 
  
DiDonato, Guy T. and Eva M. 2006. Coastal Ecological Assessment
for American Samoa: Water Quality - DRAFT
. National Park Service Files. 10 pp. National Park Service.
 
   
Fenner, D. 2004. Summer coral bleaching event 2004, on Tutuila, AS. DMWR. 4 pp. 
   
Fenner, D., et al. 2006. Report of 2005 AS coral reef monitoring program (ASCRMP), expanded edition. Rpt to DMWR and CRAG. 61 pp. 
   

Fisk, D. and C. Birkeland. 2002. Transect Databases. Unpublished Excel files in Birkeland 2005.

  
   
Fisk, D., and C. Birkeland. 2002. Status of coral communities on the volcanic islands of AS. Rpt to DMWR. 135 pp. 
   
Friedlander, A. 1993. Preliminary assessment and recommendation for long-term monitoring of reef fish populations in the proposed Ntl Park-Ofu Island, AS. Draft. Rpt to NPS. 39 pp. 
   

Goldin, Meryl R.. 2002. Field Guide to the Samoan Archipelago Fish, Wildlife and Protected Areas. Bess Press, Honolulu. 330 pp.

  
   
Grant, G., Peter Craig and G. Balazs. 1997. Notes on Juvenile
Hawksbill & Green Turtles in American Samoa. Pacific Science 51:48-53.
  
   
Green, A. 1996. Status of the coral reefs of the Samoan archipelago. DMWR. 125 pp.  
   
Green, A. 1997. An assessment of the status of the coral reef resources, and their patterns of use in the US Pacific Islands. Rpt to WPRFMC, Honolulu, HI. 281 pp. 
   
Green, A. 2002. Status of coral reefs on the main volcanic islands of AS: a resurvey of long term monitoring sites (benthic communities, fish communities, and key macroinvertebrates). Rpt to DMWR. 135 pp. 
   
Green, A. 2003. AS bans destructive scuba fishery: the role of science and management. pp 38-39. In: Wilkinson C, et al. Monitoring coral reef marine protected areas. Australian Inst of Marine Science, Townsville, Australia. 68 pp.
<http://www.iucn.org/themes/marine/pdf/mcrmpa-v1.pdf>
 
   
Green, A., et al. 1997a. 78 years of coral reef degradation in Pago Pago Harbor: a quantitative record. Proc 8th Intl Coral Reef Sym, Panama City, Panama. pp 1883-1888.  
   

Green, A. and C. Hunter. 1998. A Preliminary Survey of the Coral Reef Resources in the Tutuila Unit of the National Park of American Samoa. (unpublished 42 pp.) Nat’l Park of American Samoa, Pago Pago.

 
   

Green, A. and P. Craig. 1999a. Population Size and Structure of Giant Clams at Rose Atoll, an Important Refuge in the Samoan Archipelago. Coral Reefs 18:205-211.

  
   
Green, A., et al. 1999b. Rapid ecological assessment of the coral reef resources in the Ta'u unit of the NPSA. Draft. Rpt to NPSA. 14 pp. 
   
Green, A., et al. 1999c. Twenty years of disturbance and change in FBNMS, AS. Pacific Science 53(4):376-400.
 
   
Green, A., et al. 2005. Long term monitoring of FBNMS, Tutuila Island, AS: results of surveys conducted in 2004, including a re-survey of the historic Aua transect. Rpt to NOAA and DOC. 93 pp. 
   
Hunter, C. 1995. Review of status of coral reefs around American Flag Pacific Islands and assessment of need, value, and feasibility of establishing a coral reef fishery management plan for the WPac region. Rpt to WPRFMC. 21 pp. 
   

Hunter, C. L., L. Friedlander, W. H. MacGruder and K. Z. Meier. 1993. Ofu Reef Survey. Baseline Assessment and Recommendations for Long-term Monitoring of the Proposed National Park, Ofu, American Samoa. Univ. of Hawaii Sea Grant Ext. Serv. Report to the National Park Service.

  
  
Kirch, P.V., and T.L. Hunt (Ed.) 1993. The To'aga Site: Three
Millennia of Polynesian Occupation in the Manu'a Islands, American Samoa.
Contrib. of the Univ. of Cal. Archaeological Research Facility, Berkeley. Funded by the National Park Service through the ASG Hist. Pres. Office. 248 pp.
  
  
Linnekin, Jocelyn, Terry Hunt, Leslie Lang and Timothy McCormick. 2006. Ethnographic Assessment and Overview, National Park of American Samoa. Tech. Report #152, Coop. National Park Resources Study Unit, Dept. of Botany, Univ. of Hawai`i , Honolulu, Hawai`i. 
  
Maragos, James E., Cynthia L. Hunter, and Karen Z. Meier. 1994. Reefs and Corals Observed During the 1991-92 American Samoa Coastal Resources Inventory. Dept. of Marine and Wildlife Resources. Government of American Samoa.  
  
Maragos, James E., Karin Z. Meier, and Cynthia L. Hunter. 1995.
Reef Mapping and Beach Monitoring Project at the Ofu Unit of the National Park of American Samoa and Adjacent Terrorial Reef Park at Ofu Island.
Corial. Honolulu, Hawaii
  
  

Maragos, J. and R Grober-Dunsmore (eds.) 1999. Proceedings of the Hawaii Coral Reef Monitoring Workshop, June 1998. State of Hawaii and the East-West Center, Hawaii, 334 pp.

  
  

Mundy, Craig. 1996. A Quantitative Survey of the Corals of American Samoa. Biol. Report Series, Dept of Marine and Wildlife Resources (American Samoa), Pago Pago.

  
  

O'Connor, P.J. and M.J. Rauzon. 2004. Inventory and Monitoring of Seabirds in National Park of American Samoa. Tech. Report #136, Coop. National Park Resources Study Unit, Dept. of Botany, Univ. of Hawai`i , Honolulu, Hawai`i.

 
  
Ragone, Diane and David H. Lorence. 2006. Botanical and Ethnobotanical Inventories of the National Park of American Samoa. Tech. Report #152, Coop. National Park Resources Study Unit, Dept. of Botany, Univ. of Hawai`i , Honolulu, Hawai`i. 
  
Rauzon, M. J. 2003. The Tahiti Petrels-Night on Mount Lata, Ta'u. Tech. Report #131, Coop. National Park Resources Study Unit, Dept. of Botany, Univ. of Hawai`i , Honolulu, Hawai`i. Sound recording in MP3 format--listen to recording  
   
Smith, Lance W. 2004. Influence of water motion on resistance of corals to high temperatures: Evidence from a field transplant experiment. 5 pp. University of Hawai'i at Manoa, Honolulu.  
   
Smith, L. 2006. Influence of water motion on resistance of corals to high temperatures: evidence from a field transport experiment. In press. 5 pp.  
   
Smith, L. 2008. Fluctuating reef environments maintain coral resilience. Thesis. Univ of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI. 144 pp. 
   
Smith, Lance and Charles Birkeland. 2003. Managing NPSA's Coral Reefs in the Face of Global Warming: Research Project Report for Year 1. 32 pp . University of Hawai'i at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 10-03 Technical Report.  
  
Smith, Lance W., and Charles Birleland. 2006. Effects of intermittent flow and irradiance level on Porites corals at elevated seawater temperatures. 35 pp . University of Hawai'i at Manoa, Honolulu. 
   
Smith, L., et al. 2007a. Coral symbiont diversity along a seawater temperature gradient. Abstract. 1 p. 
  
Smith, Lance W., and Charles Birkeland. 2007b. Effects of intermittent flow and irradiance level on back reef Porites corals at elevated seawater temperatures. Jour. of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 341:282-294. 
   
Smith, Lance W., H. Wirshing, A. C. Baker and Charles Birkeland. 2007c. Environmental Versus Genetic Influences on Growth Rates of the Corals Pocillopora eydouxi and Porites lobata. Pacific Science 62:57-69. 
   
Smith, L., et al. 2007d. High flow correlates with increased skeletal growth in a reciprocal transplant experiment coral Pocillopora eydouxi. Draft. 30 pp.  
   
Smith, Lance W., D. Barshis and Charles Birkeland. 2007e. Phenotypic Plasticity for Skeletal Growth, Density and Calcification of Porites lobata in Response to Habitat Type. Coral Reefs 26:559-667. 
   
Tuato’o, N., T. Morell and P. Craig. 1993. The Status of Sea Turtles in American Samoa in 1991. Pacific Science 47:215-221.  
  
Turgeon, et al. 2002. Status of the coral reefs in American Samoa. Pages 183-187. In The state of coral reef ecosystems of the US and Pacific freely associated states: 2002. NOAA, MD. 265pp.  
  
Work, Thierry M. and Robert A. Rameyer. 2002. American Samoa
Reef Health Survey
. USFWS Nat'l Wildlife Health Center, Honolulu. 42 pp.
 
  

Zann, Leon. 1992. The Crown-of Thorns Starfish, Acanthaster planci, in the Proposed Ofu Marine Park, American Samoa. Recommendations and Strategies - DRAFT. 21 pp mimeo. Cooperative Parks Study Unit. UH Manoa.

 
  
Zeller, Dirk, Shawn Booth, Peter Craig and Daniel Pauly. 2006. A
reconstruction of coral reef fisheries catches in American Samoa, 1950-2002. Coral Reefs. 25:144-152.
 
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The park's I & M staff compiled a bibliography (with pdf copies) of Environmental Literature of the Samoan Archipelago. View Version 2, 2008 alphabetically by author -- or -- View Version by subject. List of abbreviations used in the bibliographies.
Marine Invertebrates,
Nat'l Park

of Am Samoa
University of Hawaii -
National Park Service
Birds
Nat'l Park

of Am Samoa