This Kukalauula Study Exclosure first demonstrated the new ungulate control understanding of the early 1970s: 1) goats did not jump 4' hogwire fences, even when malnourished and highly palatable plants visibly grew inside, and 2) rare native Hawaiian plants, safe from ungulates, sprouted and flourished inside the fence. Outside the fence all were alien plants, browsed to the rootstalks.
Natural Resources
The natural history resources of the Pacific Islands' National Parks have an extensive and exceptional remnant of Pacific island and marine native biota. These islands' isolated biologic life is duplicated nowhere else on earth. Though these ecosystems are well on their way to massive destruction with continuing extinctions of many species, there are opportunities at these parks to preserve and restore a sample of natural biota including representative major communities from the 13,680-foot summit of Mauna Loa Hawaii to deep marine environments at American Samoa.

To that end, managing these parks' resources requires a composite effort of biologic research, propagating rare and endangered plant and animal species, reintroducing rare species into former range, protecting rare endemic biota from depredation by species introduced by modem man, and reaching out to provide avenues for public knowledge of these unique island ecosystems.

Preserving the Pacific Parks' Natural Resources
Preserving, and where necessary restoring, such native isolated ecosystems required new knowledge and experimentation. Seeking better science to guide park management, in the early '70s the National Park Service entered into a Cooperative Study Agreement with the University of Hawaii--the forerunner of this present CESU. This Cooperative Science endeavor has developed science and strategies which today form the basis for managing to preserve native island ecosystems. Among the study products are more than a hundred technical reports funded by the NPS and others. Several books are fundamental to island ecosystem management worldwide. These latter CESU books are:
Cuddihy, L. W. and C. P. Stone. 1990. Alteration of native Hawaiian vegetation-Effects of humans, their activities and introductions. Distributed by University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii.

Stone, C. P., C. W. Smith, and J. T. Tunison (eds.). 1992. Alien plant invasions in native ecosystems of Hawaii: Management and research. Distributed by University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii.

Stone, C. P. and D. B. Stone (eds.). 1988. Distributed by University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 252 pages.

Stone, C. P. and M. K. Scott (eds.). 1985. Hawaii's terrestrial ecosystems: Preservation and management. Distributed by University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu. 584 pages.

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