Terrestrial fauna & flora
Mammals
3 bats
Samoan
fruit bat(4)
Sheath-tailed
bat (C1)
Sheathtailed
bat?
rats*, feral pigs*, dogs,
cats, house mouse
1
Birds
18 land/water birds,
7 regular migrants,
20 seabirds
Samoan
starling
Spotless crake (C1),
Friendly ground
dove (C1),
Many-colored fruit dove (C1)
White-faced
heron, 9 seabirds
Mao,
Megapode
Mynas*, Bulbul*, Rock
dove, Red junglefowl
1,2
Reptiles: land
4 geckos,
7 skinks,
1 snake
Pacific boa snake (R)
marine toad*, house gecko,
potted soil snake
1
Fish: freshwater
8-12 fishes(5)
Stiphodon
hydoreibatus
Mexican molly,
mosquitofish, tilapia
3
Crustaceans
9 stream shrimps,
several land crabs
coconut crabs are rare
in some areas
4
Insects
2,523+ insects(6)
probably many
5
Snails
47 land snails,
17 freshwater snails
16 land snails
8 land
snails (C1, SC),
several others rare or declining
Diastole
matafaoi
African snail*,
rosy wolf
snail*, 3 slugs, 22 others
6
Plants
343 flowering plants,
135 ferns
30%
109 species (R)
over 250 alien species,
many invasive
7
Marina fauna & flora
Marine mammals
11 whales,(7)
7 dolphins(7)
Humpback
whale (E),
Sperm whale (E)
1,8
Reptiles: marine
2 sea turtles
(hawksbill & green)
Hawksbill turtle (E),
Green turtle (T)
Leatherback turtle,
Olive ridley turtle,
Banded sea snake
1
Fish/sharks
890 coral reef species,
101 deep or pelagic
see note in
Reference 9
many species overfished
whale shark
9
Invertebrates
200 corals (approx.)
giant clams are rare
in some areas
giant clam
(Hippopus
hippopus)
(8)
2 giant clams (Tridacna
derasa, T. gigas)
&
30 misc. species
10
Marine plants
239+ algae species,
2-3 seagrasses,
2 mangrove species
4 algae species
11
1. General: (1) See checklists in this Guide. (2) Amerson et al. 1982. Wildlife and wildlife habitat of A. Samoa. Vol. 1. Environment and ecology. US Fish & Wildlife Service (Wash. DC). 119p. Sheath-tailed bat: Grant et. al. 1994. Decline of sheath-tailed bat on A. Samoa. Micronesica 27:133-137. Misc. introduced organisms: Tauili’ili, P. & A. Vargo. 1993. History of biological controls in A. Samoa. Micronesica Suppl. 4:57-60.

2. Megapode: Steadman, D. 1993. Bird bones from the To’aga site: prehistoric loss of seabirds and megapodes. Chapt. 14. In: P. Kirch and T. Hunt (eds.). The To’aga site: three millennia of Polynesian occupation in the Manu’a islands, American Samoa. Contributions Univ. California (Berkeley), No. 51. 248p.

3. Stream fish: (1) D. Vargo & K. van Houte-Howes, A. Samoa Community College (pers. com.). (2) US Army Corps of Engineers. 1981. American Samoa stream inventory, island of Tutuila. Rept. by USACE for A. Samoa Water Resources Study. 121p. (3) Burger, I. & J. Maciolek. 1981. Map inventory of non-marine aquatic resources of A. Samoa. US Fish & Wildlife Service (Seattle). 182p. (4) FishBase 2004 <www.fishbase.org>. Introduced fish: Eldredge, L. 1994. Perspectives in aquatic exotic species management in the Pacific islands. Vol. 1. Introductions of commercially significant aquatic organisms to the Pacific islands. South Pacific Comm., Inshore Fisheries Project Tech. Document No. 7 and SPREP Reports and Studies Series No. 78. 127p.

4. Freshwater shrimp: (1) D. Vargo & K. van Houte-Howes, American Samoa Community College (pers. com.). (2) Cook, R. 2004. Macrofauna of Laufuti Stream, Ta’u, American Samoa, and the role of physiography in its zonation. Pacific Science 58:7-21.

5. Insects and related arthropods: Kami, K. & S. Miller. 1998. Samoan insects and related
arthropods: checklist and bibliography. Bishop Museum (Honolulu), Tech. Rept. 13. 121p.

6. Land snails: (1) Cowie, R. 2001. Decline and homogenization of Pacific faunas: the land
snails of American Samoa. Biological Conservation 99:207-222. (2) Cowie, R. 1998. Catalog of the non-marine snails and slugs of the Samoan islands. Bishop Museum Bulletin of Zoology 3, Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu, 122p. Freshwater snails: (1) Haynes, A. 1990. The number of freshwater gastropods on Pacific islands and the theory of island biogeography. Malacologia 31:237-248. (2) Bardi, E., S. Fanolua. K. vanHoute-Howes & D. Vargo. 2004. Freshwater snails of Tutuila Island. American Samoa Community College. 6p.

7. Plants: Whistler, A. 2003. Plants of concern in American Samoa. US Fish and Wildlife Service (Honolulu). 56p. Introduced plant species: Space, J. & T. Flynn. 2000. Observations on invasive plant species in American Samoa. Rept. by USDA Forest Service (Honolulu).

8. Marine mammals: Reeves et al. 1999. Marine mammals in the area served by the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP). SPREP (Samoa). 48p.

9. Marine fish: Wass, R. 1984. An annotated checklist of the fishes of Samoa. NOAA Tech. Report SSRF-781. 43p. Wass notes that 40 mostly undescribed fish species are known only from the Samoan Archipelago but that the majority of these will likely be found elsewhere in the region as more extensive collections are made.

10. Corals: (1) Birkeland, C., 2004. Draft species list for American Samoa. (2) Fisk, D. & C. Birkeland. 2002. Status of coral communities on the volcanic islands of A. Samoa. Rept. to Dept. Marine & Wildlife Resources (A. Samoa). 135p. Introduced marine invertebrates: (1) Eldredge, L. 1994 (cited above in #3). (2) Cole, S., et al. 2003. A survey of introduced marine species in Pago Pago Harbor, Fagatele Bay, and the National Park of A. Samoa. Rept. by Bishop Museum (Hawaii).

11. Algae: (1) Skelton, P. 2003. Seaweeds of Am. Samoa. Report to DMWR by Int’l. Ocean Inst. & Oceania Research and Development Assoc. (Australia). 103p. (2) Skelton, P. & R. South. 2004. New records and notes on marine benthic algae of A. Samoa – Chlorophyta & Phaeophyta. Cryptogamie Algol. 25:291-312.

Note: blank spaces mean “no available data”.

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P.Craig, NPS
Footnotes: (1)Additional endemic species occur in (western) Samoa. (2)Abbreviations: E (endangered), T (threatened), C1 (candidate listing), SC (species of concern), R (rare). (3)Recent extinctions. (4)Distribution includes Fiji. (5)Excludes several brackish water species near stream mouths. (6)Includes (western) Samoa. (7)Includes species probably common in region but have not yet been documented in American Samoa. (8)Re-introduced in 1997. *Invasive non-native species that significantly impact the ecosystem.
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5. Status of species in American Samoa
Taxonomic
Group
Native species
Archipelago
endemics
(in AS)(1)
Rare, threatened or
endangered species(2)
Incidental
species
Locally
extinct(3)
Introduced &
invasive* species
Ref.
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NATURAL HISTORY GUIDE